Gallium is an vital rare metal mainly because of its growing demand in different domain of life. It has wide applications. Gallium is considered as the backbone of the electronics industry. The supply and demand of gallium-bearing products has gradually increased during the past decade. Therefore, from the environmental stand point the need for sensitive and reliable methods for determining trace concentrations of gallium has become apparent in various fields. Gallium has become increasingly popular as a substrate material for electronic devices. Aside from ore, gallium can be obtained from such industrial sources as the Bayer process caustic liquor that is a byproduct of bauxite processing, flue dust removed from the fume-collection system in plants that produce aluminum by the electrolytic process, zinc refinery residues, gallium scrap materials, and coal fly ash. The purification process for gallium can start with solvent-extraction processes where the concentrations of impurities, especially metals, are reduced to the ppm range. The main aim of this paper is to simply put up the salient facts regarding gallium and identify applicable sources of information thereby one may create a suitable environment for the development of methods for the production of gallium via leaching through various waste samples.
C.R. Chitambar, Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7 (2010) 2337–2361.
D.A. Kamer, Report of United States Bureau of Mines (1988) 9208.
D.L. Smith, H.J. Caul, Alloys of gallium with powdered metals as possible replacement for dental amalgams, J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 53 (1956) 315–324.
H. Filik, M. Dogutan, E. Tutem and R. Apak Spectrophotometric determination of gallium (III) with rutin. Anal. Sci., 2002, 18(8), 955-957
H. Minamisawa, S. Iizima, M. Minamisawa, S. Tanaka, N. Arai and M. Shibukawa Preconcentration of gallium by coprecipitation with synthetic zeolites prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal. Sci., 2004, 20(4), 683-687
K. P. P. R. M. Reddy, V. K. Reddy and P. R. Reddy Selective second order derivative spectrophotometric method for the determination of gallium(III) in presence of large excess of indium(III). , Anal. Lett., 2007, 40(10-12), 2374-2383
Kh. D. Nagiev, F. V. Kulieva and D. G. Gambarov Photometric determination of gallium in the presence of aluminum. J. Anal. Chem. (Transl. Zh. Anal. Khim.), 2007, 62(8), 730-732
L. Q. Wang LihuaJianyan, Huaxue Fence Photometric determination of gallium in coal gangue. , 2003, 39(11), 659-66
M.Frenzel, M. Ketris, T. Seifert, & J. Gutzmer, “On the current and future availability of gallium”, Resources Policy, 47 (2016) 38-50.
N. K. Agnihotri, V. K. Singh, S. Ratnani, S. K. Shukla and G. K. Parashar A method for non-extractive simultaneous determination of thallium(III) and gallium(III) in environmental and standard samples with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol in cationic micellar medium. Anal. Lett., 2004, 37(12), 2515-2529
R.R. Moskalyk, Gallium: the backbone of the electronics industry, Miner. Eng. (2003) 921–929.
S. K. Mohamed Ion-selective electrode for gallium determination in nickel alloy, fly-ash and biological samples, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2006, 562(2), 204-209
S. Xiao-quan, W. Wen, W. Bei, Determination of gallium in coal and coal fly ash by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using slurry sampling and nickel chemical modification, J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. 7 (1992) 761–764.
Tatsuya Kawakatsu; Yoshikazu Fujita; Takako Matsuo Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Gallium(III) with 2-(5-Bromo-2-Pyridylazo)-5- Diethylaminophenol in the Presence of Sodium Dodecylsulfate and BRIJ 35 Itsuo Mori; Analytical Letters, Volume 32, Issue 3 1999 , pages 613 – 622.
Tsuo Mori; Yoshikazu Fujita; Kinuko Fujita; Takeshi Tanaka; Yoshihiro Nakahashi; Mayumi Iizuka The Spectrophotometric Determination of gallium (III) Using O Hydroxyhydroquinonephathalein in the Presence of Surfactant Micellar ,Analytical Letters, Volume 21, Issue 2 February 1988 , pages 279 – 296.
W.F. Hillebrand, Applied Inorganic Analysis with Special Reference to the Analysis of Metals, Minerals, and Rocks, Wiley, (1968)259–272.