Abstract View

Author(s): Shradha Devi Dwivedi, Madhu Yadav, Deependra Singh, Manju Rawat Singh

Email(s): manjursu@gmail.com

Address: University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G), India-492010
University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G), India-492010
University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G), India-492010
University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G), India-492010
*Corresponding author: manjursu@gmail.com

Published In:   Volume - 37,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2024

DOI: 10.52228/JRUB.2024-37-1-1  

ABSTRACT:
The utilization of customary methods for oral cleanliness maintenance has a long-written history. Herbs are making a comeback all over the world. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry to alleviate pain as antimicrobial plaque specialists, to delay receptor arrival, and as germicides, cancer prevention agents, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterial, antiviral, and analgesics. Current article gives an outline of different natural products used in oral care with their impacts on oral health, restorative actions, applications, and marketed products. This article also highlights mechanistic need of oral cleanliness and the different dental diseases associated with it. The regular phytochemicals could offer a successful anti-microbial and address ways to deal with avoidance and restorative systems for different dental infections. There are different herbal formulations available on the market for oral care such as paste, mouthwash, gargles, gels, etc. creating need for awareness of consumers towards the herbal products. In these review, we have also discussed the commercial aspect of the herbal dental products along with assessment of side effects and toxicity of these herbs.

Cite this article:
Dwivedi, Yadav, Singh and Singh (2024). Herbal Alternatives for Oral Health: Mechanistic Exploration with their Market Potential. Journal of Ravishankar University (Part-B: Science), 37(1), pp. 1-21. DOI:DOI: https://doi.org/10.52228/JRUB.2024-37-1-1


References

Aishwarya, J, N Harini, and M Karthikeyan. 2014. “Clove Oil and Its Role in Oral Health-A Review.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Health Care 3 (4): 155–68.

Altemimi, Ammar, Naoufal Lakhssassi, Azam Baharlouei, Dennis G. Watson, and David A. Lightfoot. 2017. “Phytochemicals: Extraction, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts.” Plants 6 (4). https://doi.org/10.3390/plants6040042.

Bansod, Sunita, and Mahendra Rai. 2008. “Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Indian Medicinal Plants Against Human Pathogenic Aspergillus Fumigatus and A. Niger.” World Journal of Medical Sciences 3 (2): 81–88.

Catalfamo, Luciano Maria, Giulia Marrone, Michele Basilicata, Ilaria Vivarini, Vincenza Paolino, David Della-Morte, Francesco Saverio De Ponte, et al. 2022. “The Utility of Capsicum Annuum L. in Internal Medicine and In Dentistry: A Comprehensive Review.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19 (18): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811187.

Chava, Venkateswara Rao, S. M. Manjunath, A. V. Rajanikanth, and N. Sridevi. 2012. “The Efficacy of Neem Extract on Four Microorganisms Responsible for Causing Dental Caries Viz Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus Salivarius, Streptococcus Mitis and Streptococcus Sanguis: An in Vitro Study.” Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 13 (6): 769–72. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-122.

Chen, Xiuqin, EBM Daliri, Namhyeon Kim, Jong Rae Kim, Daesang Yoo, and Deong-Hwan Oh. 2020. “Microbial Etiology and Prevention of Dental Caries: Exploiting Natural Products to Inhibit Cariogenic Biofilms.” Pathogens 9 (7): 569.

“Colgate-Palmolive – Global Household & Consumer Products.” n.d. Accessed March 27, 2023. https://www.colgatepalmolive.co.in/.

Gupta, Arun, Rahul Bhowate, Ruchi Srivastava, Sunil Kumar, S. V. Devasthale, and J. L.N. Sastry. 2016. “Clinical Evaluation of Babool Neem Toothpaste in Oral Hygiene and Dental Care.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 8 (2): 57–64.

Gutiérrez, Rosa Martha Pérez, and Alethia Muñiz Ramirez. 2016. “Hypoglycemic Effects of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Byrsonima Crassifolia.” Food Science and Biotechnology 25 (4): 1135–45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0182-8.

“Herbal Toothcare Market Size, Share & Trends | Analysis Forecast, 2026.” n.d. Accessed March 27, 2023. https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/herbal-toothcare-market-A06037.

Hernández, Ivones, Yeny Lemus, Sylvia Prieto, Jorge Molina-Torres, and Gabino Garrido. 2009. “Anti-Inflammatory Effect of an Ethanolic Root Extract of Heliopsis Longipes in Vitro.” Boletin Latinoamericano y Del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas 8 (3): 160–64.

Janakiram, Chandrashekar, Ramanarayanan Venkitachalam, Paul Fontelo, Timothy J. Iafolla, and Bruce A. Dye. 2020. “Effectiveness of Herbal Oral Care Products in Reducing Dental Plaque & Gingivitis - a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 20 (1): 43. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-2812-1.

K, Pramod, Shahid Ansari, and Javed Ali. 2009. “Herbal Remedies for the Treatment of Periodontal Disease - A Patent Review.” Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation 3 (3): 221–28. https://doi.org/10.2174/187221109789105603.

Kapoor, Shweta, and Swarnlata Saraf. 2010. “Assessment of Viscoelasticity and Hydration Effect of Herbal Moisturizers Using Bioengineering Techniques.” Pharmacognosy Magazine 6 (24): 298–304. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.71797.

Kumar, Gunjan, Md Jalaluddin, Purnendu Rout, Rajat Mohanty, and C. L. Dileep. 2013. “Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 7 (8): 1827–29. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2013/6339.3282.

Lakshmi, T., Vidya Krishnan, R. Rajendran, and N. Madhusudhanan. 2015. “Azadirachta Indica: A Herbal Panacea in Dentistry - An Update.” Pharmacognosy Reviews 9 (17): 41–44. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.156337.

Lolo, Bertha, Sarworini Bagio, and Berna Elya. 2019. “Original Article Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Caesalpinia Pulcherrima ( L ) Swartz Extract against Microbes That Cause Dental and Oral Infections and Determination of the Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Contents of the Plant Bacteria Por” 15 (4): 1–10.

M, Anushri, Yashoda R, and Puranik P Manjunath. 2015. “Herbs: A Good Alternatives to Oral Health Problems.” International Journal of Advances Health Sciences 1 (12): 26–32.

Méndez, J, and U Villasanti. 2020. “Carica Papaya Mouthwash for Reducing Dental Plaque.” International Journal of Oral and Dental Health 6 (3): 6–7. https://doi.org/10.23937/2469-5734/1510117.

Mistry, Kunjal S., Zarna Sanghvi, Girish Parmar, and Samir Shah. 2014. “The Antimicrobial Activity of Azadirachta Indica, Mimusops Elengi, Tinospora Cardifolia, Ocimum Sanctum and 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate on Common Endodontic Pathogens: An in Vitro Study.” European Journal of Dentistry 8 (2): 172–77. https://doi.org/10.4103/1305-7456.130591.

Morris, Jay, Cara B. Gonzales, Jorge J. De La Chapa, April B. Cabang, Christos Fountzilas, Mandakini Patel, Stephanie Orozco, and Michael J. Wargovich. 2019. “The Highly Pure Neem Leaf Extract, SCNE, Inhibits Tumorigenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Disruption of Pro-Tumor Inflammatory Cytokines and Cell Signaling.” Frontiers in Oncology 9 (September): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00890.

Naumova, E. A., L. Weber, V. Pankratz, V. Czenskowski, and W. H. Arnold. 2019. “Bacterial Viability in Oral Biofilm after Tooth Brushing with Amine Fluoride or Sodium Fluoride.” Archives of Oral Biology 97 (January): 91–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ARCHORALBIO.2018.10.013.

Nimbulkar, Gargi, Vikram Garacha, Vittaldas Shetty, Ketaki Bhor, Kumar Chandan Srivastava, Deepti Shrivastava, and Mohammed G. Sghaireen. 2020. “Microbiological and Clinical Evaluation of Neem Gel and Chlorhexidine Gel on Dental Plaque and Gingivitis in 20-30 Years Old Adults: A Randomized Parallel-Armed, Double-Blinded Controlled Trial.” Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences 12 (Suppl 1): S345. https://doi.org/10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_101_20.

Nivetha, Raja, Karthikeyan Murthykumar, K. S. Ashwin, Nirmal Kumar, and R. Priyadharshini. 2014. “Effects of Natural Products on Oral Health: A Review.” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 7 (5): 279–82.

Olmedo-Juárez, A., M. A. Zarza-Albarran, R. Rojo-Rubio, A. Zamilpa, M. González-Cortazar, J. Mondragón-Ancelmo, N. Rivero-Pérez, and P. Mendoza-de Gives. 2020. “Acacia Farnesiana Pods (Plant: Fabaceae) Possesses Anti-Parasitic Compounds against Haemonchus Contortus in Female Lambs.” Experimental Parasitology 218 (June). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107980.

“Oral Health.” n.d. Accessed April 9, 2023. https://www.who.int/health-topics/oral-health#tab=tab_1.

Packia Lekshmi, N C J, N Sowmia, S Viveka, J Raja Brindha, and S Jeeva. 2012. “The Inhibiting Effect of Azadirachta Indica against Dental Pathogens.” Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 2 (1): 6–10.

Patil, Amola, Sumit Gunjal, Ansari Adnan, and Abdul Latif. 2018. “Tulsi : A Medicinal Herb for Oral Health.” Galore International Journal of Health Sciences and Research 3 (4): 37–39.

Rivera, Mariela, Yanilda Ramos, Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Sheila López-Acevedo, Luis A. Cubano, Jin Zou, Qiang Zhang, Guangdi Wang, and Nawal M. Boukli. 2017. “Targeting Multiple Pro-Apoptotic Signaling Pathways with Curcumin in Prostate Cancer Cells.” PLoS ONE 12 (6): 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179587.

Rodriguez-Garcia, A., I. T.A. Peixoto, M. J. Verde-Star, S. De La Torre-Zavala, H. Aviles-Arnaut, and A. L.T.G. Ruiz. 2015. “In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activity of Amphipterygium Adstringens.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/175497.

Salari, Nader, Niloofar Darvishi, Mohammadbagher Heydari, Shadi Bokaee, Fateme Darvishi, and Masoud Mohammadi. 2022. “Global Prevalence of Cleft Palate, Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate and Lip: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 123 (2): 110–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JORMAS.2021.05.008.

Saquib, Shahabe Abullais, Nabeeh Abdullah Alqahtani, Irfan Ahmad, Mohammed Abdul Kader, Sami Saeed Al Shahrani, and Elyas Ali Asiri. 2019. “Evaluation and Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of Herbal Extracts in Combination with Antibiotics on Periodontal Pathobionts: An in Vitro Microbiological Study.” Antibiotics 8 (3): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8030089.

Silva, Diego Romário da, Sabrina Avelar de Macedo Ferreira, Tainá Souza Silva, Pedro Henrique Sette-de-Souza, and Andréa Cristina Barbosa da Silva. 2018. “Atividade Antimicrobiana Do Extrato de Chenopodium Ambrosioides e Ruta Graveolens Sobre Streptococcus Mutans.” Archives of Health Investigation 7 (4). https://doi.org/10.21270/archi.v7i4.2821.

Silva, Jeferson da, Cláudio Daniel Cerdeira, Juliana Moscardini Chavasco, Ana Beatriz Pugina Cintra, Carla Brigagão Pacheco da Silva, Andreia Natan de Mendonça, Tati Ishikawa, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes Boriollo, and Jorge Kleber Chavasco. 2014. “Triagem in Vitro Da Atividade Antibacteriana de Bidens Pilosa Linné e Annona Crassiflora Mart. Contra Staphylococcus Aureus Resistente à Oxacilina (ORSA) Provenientes Do Ambiente Aéreo Na Clínica Odontológica.” Revista Do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo 56 (4): 333–40. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652014000400011.

Singh, Surabhi, Sadiya Anjum, Jincy Joy, and Bhuvanesh Gupta. 2019. “Polysaccharide-Aloe Vera Bioactive Hydrogels as Wound Care System,” 1473–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77830-3_48.

Siswomihardjo, Widowati, Siti Sunarintyas Badawi, Masahiro Nishimura, and Taizo Hamada. 2007. “The Difference of Antibacterial Effect of Neem Leaves and Stick Extracts.” Int Chin J Dent 7: 27–29.

Torwane, Nilesh, Sudhir Hongal, Pankaj Goel, and B. Chandrashekar. 2014. “Role of Ayurveda in Management of Oral Health.” Pharmacognosy Reviews 8 (15): 16–21. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.125518.

Velázquez, Claudia, José Correa-Basurto, Normand Garcia-Hernandez, Elizabeth Barbosa, Emiliano Tesoro-Cruz, Samuel Calzada, and Fernando Calzada. 2012. “Anti-Diarrheal Activity of (-)-Epicatechin from Chiranthodendron Pentadactylon Larreat: Experimental and Computational Studies.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 143 (2): 716–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.039.

Xuan, Tran Dang, and Tran Dang Khanh. 2016. “Chemistry and Pharmacology of Bidens Pilosa: An Overview.” Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 46 (2): 91–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40005-016-0231-6.

Zheng, Zhaoling, Yanhua Sun, Ziliang Liu, Mingqin Zhang, Chunqing Li, and Hui Cai. 2015. “The Effect of Curcumin and Its Nanoformulation on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats.” Drug Design, Development and Therapy 9 (August): 4931–42. https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S90147.

Zulkarnain, Hamzah Sahag. 2019. “Penurunan Jumlah Koloni Bakteri Porphyromonas Gingivalis Setelah Pemberian Nano Gel Ekstrak Akar Sidaguri (Sida Rhombifolia L.),” July.

Aishwarya, J, N Harini, and M Karthikeyan. 2014. “Clove Oil and Its Role in Oral Health-A Review.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Health Care 3 (4): 155–68.

Altemimi, Ammar, Naoufal Lakhssassi, Azam Baharlouei, Dennis G. Watson, and David A. Lightfoot. 2017. “Phytochemicals: Extraction, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts.” Plants 6 (4). https://doi.org/10.3390/plants6040042.

Bansod, Sunita, and Mahendra Rai. 2008. “Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Indian Medicinal Plants Against Human Pathogenic Aspergillus Fumigatus and A. Niger.” World Journal of Medical Sciences 3 (2): 81–88.

Catalfamo, Luciano Maria, Giulia Marrone, Michele Basilicata, Ilaria Vivarini, Vincenza Paolino, David Della-Morte, Francesco Saverio De Ponte, et al. 2022. “The Utility of Capsicum Annuum L. in Internal Medicine and In Dentistry: A Comprehensive Review.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19 (18): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811187.

Chava, Venkateswara Rao, S. M. Manjunath, A. V. Rajanikanth, and N. Sridevi. 2012. “The Efficacy of Neem Extract on Four Microorganisms Responsible for Causing Dental Caries Viz Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus Salivarius, Streptococcus Mitis and Streptococcus Sanguis: An in Vitro Study.” Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 13 (6): 769–72. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-122.

Chen, Xiuqin, EBM Daliri, Namhyeon Kim, Jong Rae Kim, Daesang Yoo, and Deong-Hwan Oh. 2020. “Microbial Etiology and Prevention of Dental Caries: Exploiting Natural Products to Inhibit Cariogenic Biofilms.” Pathogens 9 (7): 569.

“Colgate-Palmolive – Global Household & Consumer Products.” n.d. Accessed March 27, 2023. https://www.colgatepalmolive.co.in/.

Gupta, Arun, Rahul Bhowate, Ruchi Srivastava, Sunil Kumar, S. V. Devasthale, and J. L.N. Sastry. 2016. “Clinical Evaluation of Babool Neem Toothpaste in Oral Hygiene and Dental Care.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 8 (2): 57–64.

Gutiérrez, Rosa Martha Pérez, and Alethia Muñiz Ramirez. 2016. “Hypoglycemic Effects of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Byrsonima Crassifolia.” Food Science and Biotechnology 25 (4): 1135–45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0182-8.

“Herbal Toothcare Market Size, Share & Trends | Analysis Forecast, 2026.” n.d. Accessed March 27, 2023. https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/herbal-toothcare-market-A06037.

Hernández, Ivones, Yeny Lemus, Sylvia Prieto, Jorge Molina-Torres, and Gabino Garrido. 2009. “Anti-Inflammatory Effect of an Ethanolic Root Extract of Heliopsis Longipes in Vitro.” Boletin Latinoamericano y Del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas 8 (3): 160–64.

Janakiram, Chandrashekar, Ramanarayanan Venkitachalam, Paul Fontelo, Timothy J. Iafolla, and Bruce A. Dye. 2020. “Effectiveness of Herbal Oral Care Products in Reducing Dental Plaque & Gingivitis - a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 20 (1): 43. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-2812-1.

K, Pramod, Shahid Ansari, and Javed Ali. 2009. “Herbal Remedies for the Treatment of Periodontal Disease - A Patent Review.” Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation 3 (3): 221–28. https://doi.org/10.2174/187221109789105603.

Kapoor, Shweta, and Swarnlata Saraf. 2010. “Assessment of Viscoelasticity and Hydration Effect of Herbal Moisturizers Using Bioengineering Techniques.” Pharmacognosy Magazine 6 (24): 298–304. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.71797.

Kumar, Gunjan, Md Jalaluddin, Purnendu Rout, Rajat Mohanty, and C. L. Dileep. 2013. “Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 7 (8): 1827–29. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2013/6339.3282.

Lakshmi, T., Vidya Krishnan, R. Rajendran, and N. Madhusudhanan. 2015. “Azadirachta Indica: A Herbal Panacea in Dentistry - An Update.” Pharmacognosy Reviews 9 (17): 41–44. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.156337.

Lolo, Bertha, Sarworini Bagio, and Berna Elya. 2019. “Original Article Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Caesalpinia Pulcherrima ( L ) Swartz Extract against Microbes That Cause Dental and Oral Infections and Determination of the Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Contents of the Plant Bacteria Por” 15 (4): 1–10.

M, Anushri, Yashoda R, and Puranik P Manjunath. 2015. “Herbs: A Good Alternatives to Oral Health Problems.” International Journal of Advances Health Sciences 1 (12): 26–32.

Méndez, J, and U Villasanti. 2020. “Carica Papaya Mouthwash for Reducing Dental Plaque.” International Journal of Oral and Dental Health 6 (3): 6–7. https://doi.org/10.23937/2469-5734/1510117.

Mistry, Kunjal S., Zarna Sanghvi, Girish Parmar, and Samir Shah. 2014. “The Antimicrobial Activity of Azadirachta Indica, Mimusops Elengi, Tinospora Cardifolia, Ocimum Sanctum and 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate on Common Endodontic Pathogens: An in Vitro Study.” European Journal of Dentistry 8 (2): 172–77. https://doi.org/10.4103/1305-7456.130591.

Morris, Jay, Cara B. Gonzales, Jorge J. De La Chapa, April B. Cabang, Christos Fountzilas, Mandakini Patel, Stephanie Orozco, and Michael J. Wargovich. 2019. “The Highly Pure Neem Leaf Extract, SCNE, Inhibits Tumorigenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Disruption of Pro-Tumor Inflammatory Cytokines and Cell Signaling.” Frontiers in Oncology 9 (September): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00890.

Naumova, E. A., L. Weber, V. Pankratz, V. Czenskowski, and W. H. Arnold. 2019. “Bacterial Viability in Oral Biofilm after Tooth Brushing with Amine Fluoride or Sodium Fluoride.” Archives of Oral Biology 97 (January): 91–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ARCHORALBIO.2018.10.013.

Nimbulkar, Gargi, Vikram Garacha, Vittaldas Shetty, Ketaki Bhor, Kumar Chandan Srivastava, Deepti Shrivastava, and Mohammed G. Sghaireen. 2020. “Microbiological and Clinical Evaluation of Neem Gel and Chlorhexidine Gel on Dental Plaque and Gingivitis in 20-30 Years Old Adults: A Randomized Parallel-Armed, Double-Blinded Controlled Trial.” Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences 12 (Suppl 1): S345. https://doi.org/10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_101_20.

Nivetha, Raja, Karthikeyan Murthykumar, K. S. Ashwin, Nirmal Kumar, and R. Priyadharshini. 2014. “Effects of Natural Products on Oral Health: A Review.” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 7 (5): 279–82.

Olmedo-Juárez, A., M. A. Zarza-Albarran, R. Rojo-Rubio, A. Zamilpa, M. González-Cortazar, J. Mondragón-Ancelmo, N. Rivero-Pérez, and P. Mendoza-de Gives. 2020. “Acacia Farnesiana Pods (Plant: Fabaceae) Possesses Anti-Parasitic Compounds against Haemonchus Contortus in Female Lambs.” Experimental Parasitology 218 (June). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107980.

“Oral Health.” n.d. Accessed April 9, 2023. https://www.who.int/health-topics/oral-health#tab=tab_1.

Packia Lekshmi, N C J, N Sowmia, S Viveka, J Raja Brindha, and S Jeeva. 2012. “The Inhibiting Effect of Azadirachta Indica against Dental Pathogens.” Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 2 (1): 6–10.

Patil, Amola, Sumit Gunjal, Ansari Adnan, and Abdul Latif. 2018. “Tulsi : A Medicinal Herb for Oral Health.” Galore International Journal of Health Sciences and Research 3 (4): 37–39.

Rivera, Mariela, Yanilda Ramos, Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Sheila López-Acevedo, Luis A. Cubano, Jin Zou, Qiang Zhang, Guangdi Wang, and Nawal M. Boukli. 2017. “Targeting Multiple Pro-Apoptotic Signaling Pathways with Curcumin in Prostate Cancer Cells.” PLoS ONE 12 (6): 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179587.

Rodriguez-Garcia, A., I. T.A. Peixoto, M. J. Verde-Star, S. De La Torre-Zavala, H. Aviles-Arnaut, and A. L.T.G. Ruiz. 2015. “In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activity of Amphipterygium Adstringens.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/175497.

Salari, Nader, Niloofar Darvishi, Mohammadbagher Heydari, Shadi Bokaee, Fateme Darvishi, and Masoud Mohammadi. 2022. “Global Prevalence of Cleft Palate, Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate and Lip: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 123 (2): 110–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JORMAS.2021.05.008.

Saquib, Shahabe Abullais, Nabeeh Abdullah Alqahtani, Irfan Ahmad, Mohammed Abdul Kader, Sami Saeed Al Shahrani, and Elyas Ali Asiri. 2019. “Evaluation and Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of Herbal Extracts in Combination with Antibiotics on Periodontal Pathobionts: An in Vitro Microbiological Study.” Antibiotics 8 (3): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8030089.

Silva, Diego Romário da, Sabrina Avelar de Macedo Ferreira, Tainá Souza Silva, Pedro Henrique Sette-de-Souza, and Andréa Cristina Barbosa da Silva. 2018. “Atividade Antimicrobiana Do Extrato de Chenopodium Ambrosioides e Ruta Graveolens Sobre Streptococcus Mutans.” Archives of Health Investigation 7 (4). https://doi.org/10.21270/archi.v7i4.2821.

Silva, Jeferson da, Cláudio Daniel Cerdeira, Juliana Moscardini Chavasco, Ana Beatriz Pugina Cintra, Carla Brigagão Pacheco da Silva, Andreia Natan de Mendonça, Tati Ishikawa, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes Boriollo, and Jorge Kleber Chavasco. 2014. “Triagem in Vitro Da Atividade Antibacteriana de Bidens Pilosa Linné e Annona Crassiflora Mart. Contra Staphylococcus Aureus Resistente à Oxacilina (ORSA) Provenientes Do Ambiente Aéreo Na Clínica Odontológica.” Revista Do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo 56 (4): 333–40. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652014000400011.

Singh, Surabhi, Sadiya Anjum, Jincy Joy, and Bhuvanesh Gupta. 2019. “Polysaccharide-Aloe Vera Bioactive Hydrogels as Wound Care System,” 1473–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77830-3_48.

Siswomihardjo, Widowati, Siti Sunarintyas Badawi, Masahiro Nishimura, and Taizo Hamada. 2007. “The Difference of Antibacterial Effect of Neem Leaves and Stick Extracts.” Int Chin J Dent 7: 27–29.

Torwane, Nilesh, Sudhir Hongal, Pankaj Goel, and B. Chandrashekar. 2014. “Role of Ayurveda in Management of Oral Health.” Pharmacognosy Reviews 8 (15): 16–21. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.125518.

Velázquez, Claudia, José Correa-Basurto, Normand Garcia-Hernandez, Elizabeth Barbosa, Emiliano Tesoro-Cruz, Samuel Calzada, and Fernando Calzada. 2012. “Anti-Diarrheal Activity of (-)-Epicatechin from Chiranthodendron Pentadactylon Larreat: Experimental and Computational Studies.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 143 (2): 716–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.039.

Xuan, Tran Dang, and Tran Dang Khanh. 2016. “Chemistry and Pharmacology of Bidens Pilosa: An Overview.” Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 46 (2): 91–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40005-016-0231-6.

Zheng, Zhaoling, Yanhua Sun, Ziliang Liu, Mingqin Zhang, Chunqing Li, and Hui Cai. 2015. “The Effect of Curcumin and Its Nanoformulation on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats.” Drug Design, Development and Therapy 9 (August): 4931–42. https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S90147.

Zulkarnain, Hamzah Sahag. 2019. “Penurunan Jumlah Koloni Bakteri Porphyromonas Gingivalis Setelah Pemberian Nano Gel Ekstrak Akar Sidaguri (Sida Rhombifolia L.),” July.

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Basic and Advanced Logical Concept Derived from Surface Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy (SEIRS) as Sensing Probe for Analysis of Chemical Species: A Brief Review
Soil Erosion Risk Estimation by using Semi Empirical RUSLE model: A case study of Maniyari Basin, Chhattisgarh
An Estimator of Population Variance Using Multi-Auxiliary Information
Microemulsion as Novel Drug Delivery for Fungal Eye Infection
Potential of Bioactive Compounds for Atopic Dermatitis

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