Perchlorate anion (ClO4-) has been found in environmental and biological systems such as ground water, surface water, soil, fruit, dairy milk, breast milk, plant tissues, beverages, urine and blood etc. High amount of perchlorate leads to toxicity by inhibiting the iodide uptake in sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) protein system; therefore thyroid hormones can’t be synthesized.The permissible limit of perchlorate in drinking water is 15ng/mL proposed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It is measured in environmental and biological matrices by applying various techniques. This paper reviews the sources, toxicity, different techniques applied in estimation of perchlorate and its remediation. Different sources of perchlorate in environment and its toxicity has been discussed. For the removal of perchlorate many biological and chemical processes have been applied. This paper also highlights traditional and novel techniques employed for trace level determination of perchlorate in different matrices. The various merits and demerits of instrumental techniques employed have also been discussed.
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Cite this article:
Chandrawanshi ,Deb and Kurrey (2017). A Comprehensive Review on Perchlorate Chemistry. Journal of Ravishankar University (Part-B: Science), 30(1), pp.18-31.