There has been always the idea that the gut microbiome has huge impact on our health. However, only in recent years research started to provide evidence, that bacterial and human cells form a symbiosis which is responsible for the health and equilibrium of our body. Dysbiosis of our guts is contributing to systemic inflammation, leading to the rise of obesity. asthma, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and certain forms of cancer. Gut bacteria appear to help food processing functions by producing signaling chemicals that regulate our appetite, satiety, and digestion. Traditional medicine and diet may also help to balance the gut ecosystem. For example, Ganoderma lucidum may reduce obesity by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota. However, intestinal microbiota may also metabolize herbal constituents and form active compounds. For example, bioactivity enhancement by intestinal microbiota has been shown for ginsenosides. Tannins have been shown to be transformed to urolithins by human intestinal Gordonibacter species, which may explain their anti-inflammatory activity, and berberine, which is an active principle of Coptis chinensis thizomes has been shown to be transformed by gut microbiota into its intestine-absorbable form. Therefore, it is quite likely that activity of herbal preparations is via the gut microbiome, and rescarch in this field should be intensified.
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