Costus speciosus (Koen) (Keukand) an important medicinal plant belonging to family Costaceae is used in several indigenous medicinal formulation. The plant has been found to posses many pharmacological activities such as anti- bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, anti- inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diuretic, anti-stress and estrogenic activity. The rhizome of Costus speciosus are given in the disease such as Pneumonia, rheumatism, dropsy, urinary disease, jaundice. Due to indiscriminate collection from natural habitat, it has become endangered. To find out the primary and secondary metabolites of rhizome of Costus speciosus, materials were collected from 5 different localities of the Balaghat District (M.P.). Extractions of phytoconstituents from thizomes were done by soxhlet apparatus using four solvents with increasing polarity-Chloroform, Methanol, Petroleum ether and Aqueous. Phytochemical screening was conducted on the experimental rhizome extract using standard qualitative procedures. The various extracts revealed the presence of constituents such as proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, glycosoides, phenols and steroids. Protein was present in all extract where as amino acid was present in methanol and aqueous extract and absent in chloroform and petroleum ether. Alkaloid and saponin were present in all the four extracts. Flavonoid was present in methanol, petroleum ether and water. Saponin was present in methanol, petroleum ether and absent in aqueous. Phenol was absent only in aqueous extract of all localities. The generated data has provided the basis for its wide use as the therapeutic, both in traditional and folk medicine.
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