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Author(s): Reena Jamunkar, Deepak Sinha, Tarun Kumar Patle, Kamlesh Shrivas


Address: Department of Chemistry, Government Nagarjuna Post Graduate College of Science, Raipur, CG-492010, India
Department of Chemistry, Government Nagarjuna Post Graduate College of Science, Raipur, CG-492010, India
Department of Chemistry, Pt. Sundarlal Sharma (Open) University, Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur-495009, India
School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishanakar Shukla University, Raipur-492010, CG, India
*Corresponding Author:

Published In:   Volume - 37,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2024

Cite this article:
Jamunkar, Sinha, Patle, and Shrivas (2024). A Review on Extraction, Identification and Application of Pesticidal Active Phytoderived Metabolites. Journal of Ravishankar University (Part-B: Science), 37(1), pp. 152-187. DOI:

A Review on Extraction, Identification and Application of Pesticidal Active Phytoderived Metabolites

 Reena Jamunkar1,*, Deepak Sinha1, Tarun Kumar Patle2, Kamlesh Shrivas3

1Department of Chemistry, Government Nagarjuna Post Graduate College of Science, Raipur, CG-492010, India

2Department of Chemistry, Pt. Sundarlal Sharma (Open) University, Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur-495009, India

3School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishanakar Shukla University, Raipur-492010, CG, India


*Corresponding Author:


Bioactive compounds obtained from plants, microorganisms and minerals show some specific properties like insecticidal, herbicidal, repellent, antifeedant and toxicant activities called bio pesticide. They have specific modes of action against different pests. Due to their environmental eco-friendly nature, low cost, economic effectiveness, less pollution, and target specific quality they are in high demand in agriculture compared to chemical or synthetic pesticides. Extraction, purification, identification and characterization of these compounds from the plants materials are found always challenging. There are various types of traditional and non-traditional methods of extraction have been proposed such as maceration, distillation, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, soxhlet extraction, enzyme assisted extraction, microwave assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, etc. have been reported for extraction of bioactive ingredients from plants complex matrix samples. The chromatographic separation techniques like thin layer chromatography(TLC), high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatographic (GC) are used for their separation followed by the identification in order to determine their structure with the help of UV-Vis, fluorescence, NMR spectrometry, Fourier transforms infra-red spectrometry (FTIR) and mass spectrometry (MS). This review summarized the extraction procedure, formulation of biopesticide, structural identification and their application in agriculture.

Key words: Biopesticides, Synthetic Pesticide, Extraction, Identification, Formulation, Pesticidal Active Components.

 1. Introduction

Pesticide is a chemical compound used to control harmful pests present in the soil and plants. Based on sources pesticides are categorized into chemical or synthetic pesticides and Biopesticides. Chemical pesticides contain various chemicals and polymers that act as carriers (Rakhimol et al., 2020). These carriers are specific for different pests. They are used to control weeds as herbicides, algae as algaecides, rodents as rodenticides, insects as insecticides, nematodes as nematicides, molluscs as molluscicides, termites as termiticides, mites as miticides, ticks as acaricides, fungi as fungicides, bacteria as bactericides etc.(Farooq et al., 2019). Synthetic pesticides are also classified based on active components present in them such as dichlorvos, organochlorines, diazinons, chlorpyrifos, diamides, carbamates etc. (Decool et al., 2024).  Herbicides are used to control weeds to facilitate crop management by preventing their growth and increasing crop yields and commerciality (Thomson et al.,2016 ). There are some herbicides such as bipyridyl, phosphomethyl, amino acids, chloroacetanilides, chlorophenoxy compounds etc. that act as active ingredients to eliminate the harmful targeted weeds (Ayilara et al., 2023). Fungicides are used to protect plants against diseases caused by fungi by incapacitating or killing them. There are some chemicals used as fungicides such as phthalamides, dithiocarbamates, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol etc.(Ullah et al., 2019). It is reported that dithiocarbamates and phthalamides are less phytotoxic, more active and easier to prepare than other fungicides(Kumar et al., 2015). Insecticides are active ingredients used to kill harmful insects and are usually used in agriculture, industries and medicines (Abdollahdokht et al., 2022). DDT was the most common insecticide produced during the Second World War (Garces et al., 2020). Some chemicals such as anticholinesterases, avermectins, organochlorine, pyrethroids and pesticidal active compounds isolated from  plants like azadirachtin have also been reported as insecticides (Abdollahdokht et al., 2022). Algaecides are used to eradicate algae from different surfaces. Fumigants such as phosphine, ethylene bromide show broad spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, insects etc.(Dogara et al., 2022). Zinc phosphide, fluoroacetate derivatives, alpha naphthyl thiourea, and anticoagulants act as rodenticides to control rodents such as rats, mice, squirrels, chipmunks, woodchucks, nutria etc. Although these rodents play important roles in nature they can damage crops, transmit diseases and be accountable for ecological damage (Pathak et al., 2022). Organochlorines are chemical pesticides used to kill silkworms and armyworms by altering the electrophysiological properties and enzymatic properties of nerve cells (anikwe et al., 2021). Diazinon is used to control Bactrocera invadens by inhibiting the enzymatic acetylcholine sterase that is responsible for hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses (Kumar et al., 2021). Urea derivatives interfere with the deposition, synthesis and polymerization of chitin in dicotyledonous weeds and broom corn cereals (Liu et al., 2017). Carbamic and thiocarbamide derivatives inhibit the choline sterases enzymes in thrips (Frankliniella sp.) (Gupta et al., 2011). Diamide misregulates the ryanodine receptor in Spodoptera exigua insects and mosquitoes (Teixeira et al., 2013). Although pesticides increase crop production by killing harmful pests, improper use of them in agriculture leads to changes in antioxidant levels and oxidative enzymes in human beings resulting in various diseases caused by oxidative stress(Troczka et al., 2017). Chemical pesticides face many drawbacks such as persistence in the soil, impact on living beings (humans, animals, birds etc.) and environment, pest resistance, cost of purchase and production, discarding of contaminated crops etc. that affect the organic farms(Laxmishree et al., 2017). When chemical pesticides are used on a large scale on the soil for agricultural purposes, they remain non-degradable. Because of this, they persist in the environment for a longer time and leach to the surfaces and underground water, resulting in loss of biodiversity and pollution (Sharma et al., 2017). When chemical pesticides are applied on soil most of the affected organisms are non-targeted. Reports show that organophosphate and carbamate pesticides negatively affect nutrients present in soil by chelating with some important metal ions and making them unavailable for plant intake (Aktar et al., 2009). As well as plant reproduction, seed production, photosynthesis phenomenon are adversely affected by chemical pesticides(Pathak et al., 2022). Residues of chemical pesticides that remain in food and crops are biomagnified in humans through food (fish, grains, vegetables etc.), drinking water, pores of the skin (during pesticide spray), post harvested crop preservation and breathing causes severe diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, cancer, eye irritation, kidney diseases, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, skin diseases, liver dysfunction etc. (Pathak et al., 2022). High levels of pesticides i.e. 25-30% can lead to an increase in mental problems and 50% cause brain cancer, leukaemia (Nicolopoulou-Stamati et al., 2016).The continuous use of synthetic pesticides causes loss of productivity of soil and quality of crop products. Since synthetic pesticides directly kill the pests or deactivate them however they are also accountable for soil pollution, loss of agricultural productivity(Rani et al., 2021). Harmful effects of various chemical pesticides on human health are summarised in table 1.

Table 1.  Harmful effect of chemical pesticides on human health


Name of pesticides


Effect on human health





1.      Endocrine disruption activity

2.      Cancer tumor promotor

Nikolaivits et al., 2020


O, p- dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane


1.      Endocrine disruption activity

2.      It causes breast cancer

Burr, 2014


Dieldrin, endosulfane, dicofol, methoxychlor


1.      Affect embryonic development

2.      Responsible for hematological              hepatic alteration

3.      Affect nervous system

4.      Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease  

Jayaraj et al., 2016


2,4 dichlorophenol+ dihydrotestosterone


1.      It causes prostate cancer

Singh et al., 2016




1.      Inhibits cholinsterases  and act as neurotoxin

Alzagaa et al., 2014


Malathion and parathion


1.      Responsible for all types of cancer specially for breast and thyroid cancer

2.      Affect cellular growth and proliferation

3.      It causes Asthma and reduce fertility in both females and males by inhibiting the activity of endocrine hormones.

Ore et al., 2023




1.      Responsible for decrease in insulin secretion.

2.      Show genotoxic effect

3.      Affect mitochondrial function

4.      Show oxidative stress in placenta of female

5.      Responsible for Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease

Payra et al., 2023





1.      Affect human erythrocyte

2.      Show endocrine disrupting activity

3.      Show negative effect  on male reproductive system

Kim et al., 2017




1.      Responsible for ovarian cancer

Ore et al., 2023




1.      Show oxidative stress, dopaminergic effect and cytotoxic effect.

Živković Semren T, et al., 2018


Simazine, ametryn


1.      Show reproductive toxicity

Zhan et al., 2018



Quaternary nitrogen compound

1.      It causes neurodegenerative disease like Parkinson’s.

2.      Exhibits fibrosis

3.      Responsible for toxicity in human bronchial cell

Bromilow, 2003


Aldicarb, carbofurane, zirane


1.      Responsible for reproductive disorders

2.      Affect cellular metabolic mechanism and mitochondrial function

3.      Induce necrosis and apoptosis in human immune cell