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Author(s): Tripti Agrawal, Afaque Quraishi

Email(s): drafaque13@gmail.com

Address: School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh, India
School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh, India
*Corresponding author: drafaque13@gmail.com

Published In:   Volume - 36,      Issue - 2,     Year - 2023


Cite this article:
Agrawal and Quraishi (2023). Buchanania lanzan Spreng: An underutilised and valuable tropical fruit tree native to Indian forests. Journal of Ravishankar University (Part-B: Science), 36(2), pp. 126-143.



Buchanania lanzan Spreng: An underutilised and valuable tropical fruit tree native to Indian forests

Tripti Agrawal1, Afaque Quraishi2*

1,2*School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh, India

 *Corresponding author: drafaque13@gmail.com

 

Abstract

Buchanania lanzan Spreng known as the Almondette tree is a tropical fruit nut tree which is underutilised owing to unawareness regarding production and marketing. Its valuable kernels form a significant source of livelihood security and economy of tribal inhabitants of the Indian forests. The current continuous destructive harvesting practices of the tree for fruit collection is hampering the existence of the natural population in forests. The pace with which the tree is being over-exploited is alarming, but is least concerning. This review emphasizes on all aspects of B. lanzan involving its botany, geographical distribution, propagation, phytoconstituents, pharmacology, in vitro conservation and genetic diversity studies that may support future conservation strategy. The challenges in the management and propagation of this tree from an Indian perspective are discussed. The information conveyed in the present review highlights the various aspects of B. lanzan for exploring its livelihood effects and commercialization.

Keywords: Buchanania lanzan (Chironji), Conservation, in vitro, Livelihood, Propagation, Tropical forest

Introduction

Buchanania lanzan Spreng. (common names: Hindi- Chironji, English- Almondette) is a deciduous fruit nut tree in India's tropical forests (Hiwale, 2015).The tree is commonly known as Chironji in Hindi and Almondette in English owing to the almond like flavour of the seeds.  A Scottish physician, geographer, naturalist, and a botanist named Francis Buchanan-Hamilton, has been the first person to describe this tree in 1798 (Zeven and de Wet, 1982). It is a woody dicot tree of the Anacardiaceae family that is economically significant. Buchanania is the most primitive member of this family. This tree is reported in north, west, and central dry regions predominantly in the forests of the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat (Malik et al., 2010). It is a common companion of Sal (Shorea robusta), Kaldhi (Anogeissus pendula), Teak (Tectona grandis) and Mahua (Madhuca longifolia) in forests (Malakar et al., 2023).  It is indigenous to India and found throughout the Indo-Malaysian region (Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions FRLHT). Apart from India, the tree can also be found growing in Australia, the Pacific islands and tropical Asian countries (Siddiqui et al., 2016). It produces a hard nut fruit that, when decorticated, yields a kernel that is edible, highly nutritious and used as a dry fruit in food delicacies (Table 1). Kernels have a pleasant flavour and fetches high market value. The kernels produce fatty oil that serves as a viable alternative to olive and almond oils. This oil is extensively utilized in confectionery and traditional medicinal practices (Prasad, 2020).

 In the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, B. lanzan kernel is a non-nationalized Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP). Estimated annual trade of Chironji is 5000-10000 MT per year at national level. According to Chhattisgarh State Minor Forest Produce Federation (CGMFPF), Chhattisgarh state accounts for 51,200 quintal per year production potential of Chironji valued for Rs. 44.29 cores contributing more than 50 per cent of national production (Rajput et al., 2018). The decorticated Chironji (kernels) price varies from 1000 to 1400 INR (Indian Rupees) per Kg (Kilogram), depending upon kernel quality and annual production. Owing to the superior kernel quality, Bastar region Chironji of Chhattisgarh state fetches higher price in the national market. According to the market information system on non-timber forest products, the annual national production of Chironji is 97, 50,000 Kg/year (Dange et al., 2019). NTFPs like Chironji play a crucial role in livelihood security, especially for rural forest dwellers. NTFPs can be used to manufacture a variety of products for domestic use or sold through mediators. Tribes have extensive knowledge of the forest's wealth and are responsible for the conservation of numerous forest tree species. Local tribal communities have a better awareness of the proper harvesting time period to derive maximum benefit from forest products (Bardani and Nirala, 2018). This tree is a rich source of important phytochemicals of great medicinal value, too (Table 2). Phytoconstituents present in root, bark, leaf, fruit and seed imparts pharmacological activities (Table 3). Chironji leaves extract exhibits antioxidant and anti-cancerous potential and may serve as a cancer cure in the near future (Pawar and Singh, 2020). For the tribal people of Indian forests, this versatile tree provides food, fuel, fodder, lumber, and medicine as a valuable economic resource. Chironji serves as a critical NTFP, which is an internationally traded commodity. Ironically, this tree is not viewed with as much concern among foresters and its potential as a valuable resource is being rediscovered in this review.

Buchanania Genus

In India, seven Buchanania species have been outlined, two of which, B. lanzan and B. axillaris, yield edible fruits. In Kerala's evergreen forests, B. lanceolata is reported as an endangered species. Only the Andaman Islands have B. platyneura. Other species of the genus involve B. accuminata, B. lucida and B. glabra. The B. axillaris is described as dwarf species, producing high-quality kernels (Chauhan et al., 2012).The Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner, identified the 'Thar Priya' variety of B. lanzan in 2014 (Krishna et al., 2019).

Botanical Features

B. lanzan is a moderate-sized deciduous tree with tomentose branches and a straight, cylindrical trunk (Mall, 2017). The bark is tough, dark grey to black in colour, and fissured with prominent squares that resemble crocodile scales. The leathery leaves are big, rectangular, and contain 10-20 pairs of straight, parallel veins with a rounded base. Fruit harvest season spans from April to June, with flowering beginning in January and ending in March. A single panicle can produce between 3000-5000 flowers. Under subtropical climates, around May-June, the tree drops its leaves for a short period. The fruits begin to ripen in April and continue to ripen until the end of May. The pericarp of the fruit alters its appearance as it ripens. Fruits persist on the tree for a more extended period. The fruits are drupe-shaped, juicy, and have a sweet, tangy flavour with a single dicot edible seed. It is a cross-pollinated, highly heterozygous tree with an alternate fruit-bearing character similar to mango trees (Singh et al., 2006). (Figure 1A, B, C, D, E). On average, each tree produces 40-50 kg of fresh fruit, yielding 1-1.5 kg of finished product per tree. The price of the dry seed of Chironji fetches about 1200-1500 INR per Kg (Prasad, 2020).

Geographical distribution

B. lanzan is found in the drier regions of India, in deciduous forests rising to 1300 metres in the sub-Himalayan tract, Central India, dry and semi-arid regions, and the Peninsular Hills (Malik et al., 2012). This species can be found growing in Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. Chironji is not grown on a cultivation scale, but prospered as a stray plantation in forests' natural habitat and are mostly found in the Sal trees inhabiting areas of the forest. Paradoxically, there is hardly any available data of the exact area and production. The population density throughout distinct forest ranges, on the other hand, provides an estimate of dispersion and output. Wild trees were found in small populations in the forest and occasionally solitary tree in the fields near the peripheral forest area, according to a survey of B. lanzan collected from many affluent regions of Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan (Malik et al., 2012). Chironji grows in rocky, gravelly red soil in a forest setting (Chauhan et al., 2012). Even though it is a sturdy tree, it cannot survive in waterlogged environments. It prefers neutral soil for growth and can survive in temperatures ranging from 1°C (degrees Celsius) to 45°C (Chauhan et al., 2012). The tree thrives well in tropical and subtropical conditions and is drought tolerant.

Ethnobotanical Aspect

Since prehistoric times, B. lanzan has been used as herbal medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Parts of the tree are used in Ayurvedic, Tibetan, Unani, and folk medicine systems. The kernel and bark extracts are used as a tonic, to treat an intrinsic haemorrhage, and bloody diarrhoea. Kernel powder mixed with milk is an aphrodisiac that is also used to treat fever and burning sensations. As a breast milk substitute, a sweet medication made of B. lanzan seed, licorice, burned paddy, and sugar candy is formulated (Sengupta and Roychoudhury, 1977). Its bark decoction is used to treat abdominal pain, cough, and bronchitis (Mehmood et al., 2016). The fruit is a laxative, aphrodisiac, and cures fever, ulcers, and blood-related diseases (Chanda et al., 2013). The fruit is used in the treatment of nervous, cardiac, general debility, ulcer, fever, constipation and low sperm count (Mishra et al., 2012). It has the potential to treat snakebites, dysentery, diarrhea, asthma, colds, and Alzheimer's disease, as well as having anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic properties (Gandhi, 2001; Reddy, 1997; Patil and Rothe, 2017). Ethnoveterinary medicine is made from bark extract, seed, root bark powder, cow milk, and gum resin (Sikarwar and Tiwari, 2020). The leaf juice is aphrodisiac, purgative, expectorant, blood purifier, and thirst quencher due to the presence of tannins, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, and various reducing sugars (Rajput et al., 2018). The leaves themselves have properties to heal minor wounds (Kala, 2009). For centuries, tribal populations across the country have used this plant as folklore medicine.

Livelihood Assistance

Underutilised fruit tree species, B. lanzan, serve as a vital role in the economic development of tribal communities, marginal and landless farmers. Tree products contribute 20-30% to their total income and serve as an additional income source for livelihood support (Malik et al., 2013). Local inhabitants thriving in the region have access to trees growing in the marginal and forest areas. Besides providing earnings from the tree's produce, it also provides nutritional food security and medicinal assistance. As the fruit ripens in April-May, peak summer months in the Indian subcontinent, the whole family of farmers and the tribal community gets engaged in plucking, grading and marketing the fruits in local areas. Most underutilised fruits, such as Chironji, are only confined to local markets and are relatively unknown in other regions of the country. Despite the fact that they can grow in harsh conditions and are well known for their medicinal and neutraceutical value, they are only popular among the local inhabitants (Malik et al., 2013). Besides these, fruits also impart cultural and social value, contributing to the ecosystem's stability (Singh et al., 2020). Organized production, collection, processing, and marketing of Chironji would further improve the small farmers' socio-economic condition and tribal inhabitants residing in the forest areas (Malik et al., 2013). The fruit has a substantial social and economic value in providing livelihood to the tribal population of the forest region and has potential to serve as commercial fruit species (Ashok et al., 2020).

Conventional Techniques of Propagation

The traditional propagation method of B. lanzan involves, seed germination, softwood grafting, air layering, patch budding, chip budding, and veneer grafting (Tewari and Bajpai, 2001; Malik et al., 2012). The tree is usually propagated from seed, which is covered by a hard coat. For optimal germination, the fruit's hard coat should be cracked carefully, either mechanically or by scarification. Softwood grafting and chip budding are effective, although they are rarely employed because commercial horticulture is not emphasised. Although rooting is difficult in the Chironji plant, 67% rooting in Chironji root cuttings treated with 1600 ppm Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) was reported by Singh et al. (2002).On the other hand, they found air layering and patch budding to be unsuccessful methods of propagation (Tewari and Bajpai, 2001).

Although the seeds are the principal source of regeneration in B. lanzan, fungal attack by Fusarium sp. is expected once the seeds are planted in soil (Shende and Rai, 2005). Soil fungus such as Fusarium monililforme var. subglutinans Wr. and Rg., Fusarium semitectum Berk and Rav (Capuano et al., 1998) attack the seedlings as well. Excessive humidity and temperature favour the conditions for fungal attack. Seeds exposed to sunlight, fail to germinate and ultimately lose viability. A hard seed coat, which leads to reduced germinating potential, is a substantial hurdle in germination (Shende and Rai, 2005). The reduced germination frequency of seeds due to endogenous seed-borne fungus contamination during seed storage is a serious concern in B. lanzan regeneration (Shende and Rai, 2005). Molds, fungus, and other spoilage microbes are attracted to Chironji kernels, which contain about 6% moisture and are susceptible to infestation by moulds, fungi, and other spoilage microorganisms during seed storage (Sahu et al., 2018).

Shukla & Solanki (2000) concluded that 48 hours of soaking of seeds in water resulted in 71% germination and mechanical scarification yielded 83% germination. They found that mechanical scarification of the seed coat with a hammer prior to sowing resulted in 83% seed germination within 18 days of sowing, with normal seedling growth. B. lanzan seeds reported are to be desiccation and chilling temperature tolerant, and no significant loss of viability was observed on storage up to 250 days; Naithani et al. (2004) have thus classified the seeds as orthodox about storage behaviour and suggested rapid drying with silica gel before storage. Jitendra et al. (2012) reported 55-65% germinability and suggested the recalcitrant nature of the seeds as after three months of harvesting, the seeds are no longer viable. Fresh seeds germinate well, however seeds exposed to direct sunlight lose viability and germinability quickly. Sharma (2012) investigated the scientific harvesting technique and analyzed a week wise physiological data of seed viability, seed germination, seedling growth, seed vigour and seedling biomass of B. lanzan fruits in the Chhindwara forest division of Madhya Pradesh state and concluded that the second to the third week of May is the most suitable period for seed collection of fruit, kernel, germination % and chemical composition. By mechanically damaging the stony endocarp with hammer, seed germination of 75% was achieved within 20 days of seeding, with a high seedling conversion followed by seed germination of 61.5% within 25 days with 5% H2SO4 (sulphuric acid)` treatment as compared to 39% germination in usually sown seeds without any treatment (Kamal et al., 2014). Sharma (2016) observed an increase in germination percentage (71.43%) and a decrease in the number of days required for germination initiation (22.24 days) in B. lanzan seeds subjected to mechanical scarification comparable to acid scarification and 200 ppm Gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. They also observed maximum plant height and root length in mechanically scarified seeds. The mechanical breaking of the seed coat, on the other hand, is tedious and poses a risk of injury to the enclosed embryo, which is delicate and tender. Joshi et al. (2017) observed the maximum seedling height, seedling diameter, leaf number per plant and leaf area in seeds treated with 200 ppm GA3 at 180 Days after sowing (DAS). Both mechanical scarification and 200 ppm GA3 pre-sowing treatments improved Chironji seedling growth and biomass characteristics (2017). In south-eastern Rajasthan, Sharma et al. (2020) investigated seed germination behaviour and seedling characteristics of B. lanzan. They reported a minimum days for seed germination, the highest seed germination percentage (68.89%) and survival percentage (90.30%) in seeds treated with 5% H2SO4 concomitantly with an increase in seedling growth attributes like collar diameter, seedling height and the number of leaves. Mechanical treatment and water soaking in 24 hours gave a maximum germination percentage (85%) from one-month old B. lanzan seeds (Khobragade and Rai, 2022).

Despite these efforts, no large-scale plantations of this underutilised tree are currently possible due to a hard stony seed coat combined with highly susceptible seeds and seedlings to fungal infections and insect attacks. Bhatnagar and Kumari (2022) observed that B. lanzan seeds were dispersed in all directions from the tree, with a particularly high density of seeds noticed at 3-5 m from the tree. Thus, they concluded that seed dissemination and seedling establishment are detrimental to this plant's regeneration. Consequently, they concluded that seed dispersal and seedling establishment are deleterious to the regeneration of this plant. In this context, plant tissue culture, an alternative approach to promote multiplication, is one of the most efficient methods of propagating a valuable tree (Ekka et al., 2020). Tissue culture techniques offer genetic improvement of economically important and underutilised trees.

Need for Conservation

Collection from wild areas and habitat destruction due to deforestation and anthropogenic activities occur at a fast pace, leading to depletion of the natural populations of B. lanzan. Chironji is unrestricted for collection by local collectors, which resulted in the destruction of tree branches during fruit collection without concerning about new plantations, leading to a substantial destruction of the natural B. lanzan population in the forests (Kamal et al., 2014). It may be the reason for the threatened status of the tree as the species is enlisted as vulnerable in Rajasthan (assessed in the year 2007) and nearly threatened in Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh (evaluated in the year 2003 and 2006, respectively) (FRHLT). No further data regarding its current population is available and is the least concerned tree species. Wild elephants' herd uproot and destroy the mature Chironji trees in the forests for their sweet and fleshy roots (pers. comm.). Also, local inhabitants of forests injure the tree trunks for collecting its gum exudates, leaving the wound to be further attacked and infested, leading to the death of the whole tree (pers. comm.) (Figure 2 A, B). In natural forests, inappropriate and excessive gum tapping results in the death of commercially valuable gum yielding trees. These destructive tapping methods accompanied with poor seed regeneration are the major cause of decline in natural populations of these trees (Paramanik and Bhattacharya, 2021). Due to rapid urbanisation and development activities in tribal inhabited areas of Indian states, holding a natural population of this species, the genetic diversity of B. lanzan is facing severe genetic attrition (Singh, 2007). Thus, destructive harvesting practices for collecting fruits from natural habitats, combined with poor seed germination and a low vegetative multiplication ratio, highlight the importance of conservation and multiplication management. Overexploitation of the wild resources and lack of sufficient plantations have resulted in the imperative need of collecting the existing genetic diversity, traditional knowledge and data on the socio-economic importance of B. lanzan from the local inhabitants of forests for the protection and commercialization of this important fruit tree species.

Conservation Efforts - Ex situ & In situ Approaches

Significant steps are the need of the hour to conserve B. lanzan. The National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) in New Delhi, India has developed an ex situ cryogene banking facility for embryo and embryonic axis. Ex situ field gene banks are also operational for the conservation and multiplication of B. lanzan at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research's Horticulture Research Institutes in Godhra (Gujarat) and Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). Collected germplasm has been stored in the National Cryogene bank at the NBPGR in New Delhi, India as 127 accessions for prospective use. In recent years, collected elite germplasm has been established in the field gene bank of various western India sites (Malik et al., 2012). Germplasm of B. lanzan has been stored as 30 accessions at the gene field bank in the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture (CIAH), Bikaner, India (Meena et al., 2022). However, in situ conservation strategies such as defining natural habitats in the form of conservation areas and national reserves based on natural wild diversity, as well as ex situ conservation of B. lanzan, are critical to preserving genetic wealth germplasm for genetic improvement in terms of developing desirable varieties. Owing to this tropical tree species' high commercial and economic value, in vitro propagation technology is a crucial component in conservation to complement seed banking.

It is critical to survey, collect, and characterise germplasm of underutilised fruit species from diverse areas because of the threat of genetic depletion owing to deforestation activities in tribal inhabited forest areas (Singh, 2007). Because of the depletion of native wild populations and the low natural regeneration capacity of species in their natural habitat, this species' genetic resource is under jeopardy. Farmers or locals propagate progenies from seeds in the majority of these underutilised fruit species because commercial cultivars are unavailable. Even if few have identified it, planting material is scarce. Therefore, a complementary conservation approach is required to ensure long-term conservation and sustainable utilisation of underutilised fruit species such as B. lanzan, which is on the verge of extinction. To preserve the genetic diversity, both in situ and ex situ approaches should be used. Ex situ conservation (field gene banks and cryo-banking) combined with in situ conservation (in situ on-farm conservation and protected sites) is the most suited technique for Chironji germplasm conservation in the current scenario (Malik et al., 2012).

Biotechnological Approaches for In Vitro Conservation

For enhancing the conservation of Chironji, modern biotechnological and tissue culture tools are being used in the current scenario.

Plant Tissue Culture

Shende and Rai (2005) developed a seed-based tissue culture approach enabling multiple shoots and root regeneration in B. lanzan for clonal multiplication. They used auxin and cytokinin alone or in combination to inoculate the de-coated seeds onto the Murashige & Skoog (1962) medium. MS medium with 22.2 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 5.37 μM 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) could support the formation of the maximum number of shoots. Furthermore, MS medium containing 23.3 μM Kinetin induced abundant rooting of the initiated shoots.

Sharma et al. (2005) used immature embryos as explants to develop a protocol for somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in B. lanzan. Immature zygotic embryos were cultivated on MS media with various combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), BAP, or NAA to produce calluses. MS medium supplemented with 4.53 μM 2,4-D, 5.32 μM NAA, and 4.48 μM BA yielded the highest frequency of somatic embryo induction. For the maturation and germination of somatic embryos, the medium supplemented with 15 μM abscisic acid (ABA) was the most effective.

Shirin et al. (2018) performed axillary shoot proliferation through nodal segments of in vitro grown seedling on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of Benzyl Adenine (BA) and Kinetin (Kn). They observed maximum sprouting of 88.89% from nodal segments on MS medium with 0.05 μM Kinetin and 0.5 μM BA.

Singh et al. (2022) formulated a protocol for Chironji organogenesis and in vitro multiplication using juvenile leaf and nodal segments. After 3 weeks of leaf explant inoculation in MS containing 2.5mg/l 2,4-D, a maximum of 41 callus were induced. But, limited efficacy after hardening was reported.

However, all these in vitro efforts are limited to the seedling explants, mature plus tree explants must be exploited for superiority.

Genetic Diversity Analysis

Limited research has been conducted pertaining to the genetic variations exhibited by this particular tree species. Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, Niratker and Sailaja (2018) assessed the genetic diversity of B. lanzan from three different agro-climatic regions in India's Chhattisgarh state. A total of 18 wild genotypes were collected from the three different climatic zones. Using a modified Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) technique, genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves and subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using 20 decamers. Fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified with 100% polymorphism. Among all the 18 genotypes assessed, Bastar Genotype (Km) showed a maximum of 90.0% variability. Thus, B. lanzan genotypes exhibited considerable genetic divergence indicating plenty of scope for improving the existing population.

Value Added Products

The Chironji fruit is classified as Minor forest produce and is included in the Pradhan Mantri Van Dhan Yojana (PMVDY) program, which is operated by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi. The primary objective of this initiative is to provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for tribal communities by leveraging the resources available in forests. This effort aims to enhance the value, establish a brand, and market forest products. According to the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Limited (TRIFED), the Chironji fruit possesses a projected annual potential of 10 million kg and is valued at approximately 230 Crores in Indian currency. Hence, the incorporation of Chironji fruit and nut has the potential to augment the economic prosperity of rural communities. According to TRIFED, in addition to its use as a condiment in many cuisines, it can be utilized for manufacturing value-added products like squash, ready-to-serve drinks (RTS) and nectar by processing the pulp of the Chironji fruit. Chironji kernels have the potential to be utilized in the preparation of many sweet delicacies, including sweet meals and Chironji cookies. Chironji seeds are utilized for enhancing skin radiance and providing moisturization due to their notable anti-inflammatory effects and high antioxidant content. The aforementioned characteristic is a contributing factor to the inclusion of this property in skin care products such as face creams and face masks. In addition to its efficacy in eliminating persistent acne and pimples, it also serves as a potent cure for a range of skin-related ailments. Chironji oil possesses medicinal properties that can be utilized for skin and hair care. Until now, there have been no reports of Chironji and its numerous components causing toxicity.

Conclusion

B. lanzan is an important tropical fruit tree species contributing significantly to forest diversity and livelihood sustainability of Indian forests. According to traditional indigenous knowledge, nearly every part of the tree is critically important. Concurrently, cultivation and commercialization should be emphasized for the purpose of combating various ailments in modern medicine. In addition to having immense potential as a commercial horticulture plant, this species possesses a high economic significance for the tribal population's livelihood. Chironji being comparable to dry fruit nut "almond" forms an essential additive in food preparations. The kernels have found an important position as dry fruit in supermarkets and may soon conquer the international food market. Small farmers and tribal residents' subsistence economies would benefit even more from organised manufacturing, packaging, and distribution for the value addition of the finished product and additionally assist in the on-farm conservation of valuable germplasm. Unfortunately, over-exploitation of the natural environment and poor seed germination has resulted in a significant decline of B. lanzan trees in recent years, rendering the species at risk of extinction. This mandates immediate conservation measures at all levels.

  Acknowledgements

  The authors are grateful to the School of Studies in Biotechnology at Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University in Raipur, India, for providing the necessary internet and web portal facilities for writing up this review article. Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Research Scholarship Award sponsored this research under Grant No.1306/Fin./Sch.//2019.

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Figure Captions

Figure 1 B. lanzan

A.    Mature tree found in forest, around 8-10 years with old and yellow leaves at the onset of summer season

B. Branch with panicle inflorescence, greenish white flowers

C. Branch with unriped fruits, green in colour when immature

D. Riped mature fruits, brownish red in colour which is tangy in flavour

E. Decorticated seeds, kernel namely called as ‘char’, used as dry fruit

Figure 2 B. lanzan tree trunk

A. Injured for gum tapping by the forest inhabitants for collecting chironji gum

B. Injury turns to deep wound gradually, ultimately causing death of whole tree

 

List of Tables

Table 1- Nutritional profile of B.lanzan

S.No.

Tree part

Constituents

Composition (in %)

References

 

 

 

1.

 

 

 

SEED

Fats

59.00

 

 

 

Khare, 2007          

 

Proteins

19.00-21.60

Carbohydrates

12.10

Fibre

3.80

Phosphorus

52.80

Calcium

27.90

Iron

0.85

 

 

2.

 

 

FRUIT PULP

 Carbohydrate

20.51

 

 

Sahu,1998

Crude fibre

1.27

Fat

0.67

Ash

1.82

Crude protein

1.93

 

Table 2- Phytoconstituents present in various parts of B. lanzan

S.No.

Plant part

Phytochemical

References

1.

Leaves

 

                    

Tannins, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, kaempferol-7-o’glucosides, quercetin-3-rahmnoglucoside, quercetin, gallic acid, kaemferol, myricetin-3’-rhmnoside-3-galactosideepinitol, vomicine and celidoniol

(Mehta et al., 2010; Mehta et al., 2011a)

2.

Bark

Tannins, alkaloids, saponins, quercetin, gallic acid and glucoside

(Banerjee and Bandyopadhyay, 2015)

3.

Seed oil

Myristic, palmitic, stearic,  oleic,  and linoleic acid, , monounsaturated di-saturated, di-unsaturated mono-saturated, tri-saturated and tri-unsaturated glycerides, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins

(Banerjee and Bandyopadhyay, 2015; Desai et al., 2022)

4.

Gum exudates

Flavonoids, saponin, tannins, amino acid, protein, carbohydrates

(Siddiqui et al., 2016)

 

Table 3 - Major pharmacological activities in different extracts of B.lanzan

 

S.No.

 

Plant part

 

Extract

 

Pharmacological activity

 

References

 

 

 

1.

 

 

 

Root

Methanol& acetone

Antioxidant

(Patra et al., 2011)

Methanol

Analgesic and Antiinflammatory

(Patsnaik et al., 2011)

Ethanol

Antidiarrhoeal

(Kodati et al.,  2010a)

Ethanol

Antiulcer

(Kodati et al., 2010b)

 

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

 

Bark

Methanol

Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory and DNA protective Property

(Shailasree et al., 2012)

Methanol

Antioxidant

(Mehta et al., 2009)

Ethanol

Chemopreventive

(Jain and Jain, 2012)

 

Ethyl acetate

Wound healing

(Mehta et al., 2014)

 

Ethanol

Antivenome

(Naseeb et al., 2014)

 

 

 

 

3.

 

 

 

 

Leaf

Ethanol

Antioxidant

(Joshi et al., 2011)

Methanol

Antioxidant

(Mehta et al., 2009)

Methanol

Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic  and Antioxidant

(Sushma et al., 2013)

Methanol

Adaptogenic

(Mehta et al., 2011b)

Methanol

Antidiarrhoeal

(Sumithra et al., 2012)

 

4.

 

Fruit

Ethanol

Wound healing activity

(Chitra et al., 2009)

Ethanol

Diuretic

(Hullati et al., 2014)

 

 

5.

 

 

Seed

Petroleum ether

Memory Booster

(Neelakanth et al., 2012)

Methanol

Antiinflammatory & Antioxidant

(Warokar et al., 2010)

Ethanol

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and  Antipyretic

(Mehmood et al., 2016)




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