Exploring Life Cycle Analysis in Developing Sustainable
Communities in Chhattisgarh
Architecture, National Institute of Technology, Raipur, C.G.
With the rapid
growth in the urbanization of Chhattisgarh, the need for sustainability has
also brought out various strategies for catering to the issue of mass fossil
usage. One such way can be seen in creating neighborhoods and environments that
engage in practices that encourage sustainable living. Another is the usage of
a technique that measures the amount of energy a commodity takes to produce to
be put into use, followed by its maintenance and end of life. Life cycle
analysis (LCA) is a technique used to understand the amount of energy that has
surpassed the initial production of any product to its final disposal stage. This
was brought out for the sole purpose of utilizing and opting for products that
possess low embodied energy- an attempt to sensitize people to sustainability.
Over the years the phases and the scale for LCA have changed drastically. This
paper focuses on how the life cycle analysis could contribute to developing an
environment for people that portrays sustainability in Chhattisgarh. A
sustainable community is a way ahead for a better future and by integrating LCA
for creating a sustainable community in the Indian context, a holistic approach
could be envisaged that delivers the aim to be environmentally, economically,
and socially sustainable.
Keywords- Sustainability, Life cycle analysis, Chhattisgarh
Nation’s 2030 sustainable development goal was introduced for identifying the
best solutions in catering to the issues of climate change, environmental
degradation, and mass fossil use. With the intent to find the requirements of
the present and saving for the future generation, a tool was required that
understands and evaluates the amount of energy any commodity, from small to
large scale could utilize from its production stage to its disposal. This tool
would help analyse how different materials would impact the environment, and
later, on a large scale, with the decision-making and use of policy framework, the
aim of sustainable development could be put into play. Life Cycle Analysis
(LCA) is the tool that caters to the environmental, ecological, and social
impacts of a product throughout its course of life.
Figure 1: Iterative Process in Life Cycle Assessment (Source: Heilala
et al. 2014)
There are four
major phases of LCA. Each division is based on the steps that classify and
rectify all the other processes and phases shown in Figure 1. The first phase
begins with the definition of confined goals and the scope of the analysis.
This helps to refine the necessary boundaries, its functionality, and the type
of analysis the study aims. It is said to be the first defined declaration made
to provide clear intended answers for the range, interest, target group, and
accessibility of the aimed analysis. The second phase is called the Life Cycle
Inventory (LCI). This phase inculcates all the necessary data required for the
analysis. This data begins from its production stage along with manufacturing,
transportation, product use, and ultimately, disposal. These stages vary as per
the examination and the type of required life cycle assessment (Adhikari,
Mahmoud, and Ellingwood 2021;). The most typical types are cradle-to-grave
analysis, cradle-to-cradle assessment, and cradle-to-gate analysis (Abokersh et
analyses the process from its production stage till it is ready for use.
Cradle-to-grave tracks the process further and analyses it till its disposal
whereas, cradle-to-cradle, being the most sustainable one, recycles the product
instead of disposing of it. The third stage is the impact assessment where the
data collected and interpreted is assessed and categorized as per their
characterization models, which later goes into processes like Grouping and
Normalisation. The final stage is the interpretation of the results analysed
which gives a detailed idea of the significance of the study and its limitation
which is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Life Cycle Assessment Iterative Process (Source: Heilala
et al. 2014)
One of the
important potential factors of LCA is for the comparison of alternative methods
which helps in providing pertinent information about the life cycle (Zaker
Esteghamati et al. 2022). As an example, while comparing the Life Cycle
analysis of construction materials such as fly ash bricks, objectives such as comparing
the impact of recycled bricks and fly ash bricks, its impact, and
identification of improvements in the life cycle are also available which makes
the study versatile and robust. LCA works in parallel to the economic,
ecological, and social sustainability domains. One example could be explained
through the provision of knowledge about the potential social repercussions on
people brought on by the activities occurring during the life cycle of a
product, provided by social LCA which aims to assist organizations in operating
in a socially responsible manner (Aberilla et al. 2020).
LCA is seen as
a tool for process and product designers to include environmental factors in
their design process, making it easy to foresee and steer clear of any hazards.
LCA is viewed by consumers and consumer interest organizations as a tool to
better inform customers about the relative environmental effect of alternative
products to put pressure on manufacturers. Finally, regulators and
decision-makers use LCA as a tool to direct the creation of environmental
policy and to enforce statutory goals.
Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) carried out India’s first
LCA analysis for steel in 1999. Other studies were then carried out for various
other materials such as cement, coal, paper, and jute. The investigations were
initiated by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (formerly
MoEF), the Manufacturing Associations, and the National Council for Cement
& Building Materials (NCCB) Faridabad.
Recycling Industries (SRI) initiative, supported by the Swiss State Secretariat
for Economic Affairs, has seen a lot of LCA work since 2015 (Campos-Guzmán et
al. 2019, Corona and San Miguel 2019). This project's activities included
establishing a regional centre for life cycle assessment (LCA), hosting several
programs to build capacity, and gathering data for calculating the life cycle
inventories (LCIs) in nine industries, including the electricity production and
distribution in India, along with the cement industries, coal mining,
agricultural products, textiles, waste treatment technologies, iron mining and
steel production, water supply, and freight transportation. LCA consultants are
experiencing several inquiries from the industry for performing LCAs recently
due to the inclusion of LCA in ISO 14001 criteria.
having specialized LCA teams inside their organizations include Mahindra &
Mahindra Tata Motors Limited, JK Tyres & Industries Limited, Sagar Cement, Godrej
& Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd., ITC Limited, Eaton Corporation, Lucas TVS, and SPB
Papers. The primary goals of these studies are to increase resource efficiency
and cut costs by concentrating on a certain product or process.
This study will
portray an extensive literature study based on the functions of LCA and its
integration in creating sustainable communities and later, specific communities
of Chhattisgarh. Figure 2 shows the iterative process of the life cycle
analysis in the Chhattisgarh communities context. The methodology begins with
formulating a clear goal and scope of the study that needs to be done along
with the collection of preliminary data that later on provides an inventory of
the life cycle assessment which collaborates with the community’s database which
later defines the results obtained and the amount of impact on the environment
(Aberilla et al. 2020). With some data interpretation and changes a comparative
analysis is formed to obtain the wanted result.
Figure 2: Life Cycle Assessment Iterative Process (Source: Author)
Communities in Chhattisgarh
One of the
fastest growing and developing states, Chhattisgarh is a hub of rich heritage
and ethnicity (De Boni et al. 2022). Due to growing urbanization, living
standards had also seen a drastic variation. On the other hand, the tribal
communities use old techniques that are sustainable and promote better living
conditions. The main tribes as per location in Chhattisgarh is shown in Table
Abujmaria, Bisonhorn Maria, Muria, Halba, Bhatra, Parja, Dhurvaa
Dandami Mariya or Gond, Dorla, Halba
Rajgond, Kawar, Bhaiyana, Binjwar, Dhanwar
Bilaspur and Raipur
Savra, Manji, Bhayna
Mainpur, Dhura, Dhamtari
Table 1: Location-wise communities (tribal) in Chhattisgarh
landscape tourism, the tribal communities play an important role in reviving
the local craft and artworks which help in revenue generation, hence promoting
Chhattisgarh, India, a decentralized power-producing facility was put into
operation in 2006 for running on pure jatropha oil. The objectives were to
evaluate the project's environmental viability to give policymakers an
evidence-based justification for powering rural settlements (M. Hannouf and
Assefa 2017; M. B. Hannouf et al. 2022). A thorough Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
for rural electrification was performed which was Jatropha-based, along with
other electrification methods including diesel-powered generators, photovoltaic
(PV), and grid connection. In conclusion, compared to a diesel generator or
grid connection, the jatropha-based electricity in Ranidhera decreases
greenhouse gas emissions over the course of its whole life cycle by a factor of
7. Due to drawbacks such as air pollution caused by pre-heating the jatropha
seeds, the environmental performance is only marginally enhanced. However, if
jatropha is grown on marginal land and land use competition can be avoided,
environmental advantages can only be realized. Given these circumstances,
jatropha-based energy generation which is very durable and can be maintained
even in distant and severely underdeveloped regions might be a good substitute
for other renewable electrification methods. Hence, the community participation
in Ranidhera in providing rural electrification has created sustainable
development factors and enriched it with low carbon emissions.
LCA is a method
to analyse the impact of any commodity on the environment. Using healthy
community participation, sustainable practices will implement better living
standards as well as improve the quality of life and surroundings (Safarpour et
al. 2022, Sevigné-Itoiz et al. 2021). Chhattisgarh being a hub of communities,
stands apart from all the other states and has the potential of providing
communities enriched with a better environment.
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