of Ravishankar University–B, 34 (1), 09-18 (2021)
Need of Gallium Recovery from Waste
Samples: A Review
Monika Swami1*, Kinjal Patel2
1*Department of Chemical Engineering, SAL College of
Engineering, Ahmadabad, 380060, India
Chemical Engineering, SAL Engineering and Technical Institute, Ahmadabad,
Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
19 February 2021; Revised: 13 April 2021; Accepted: 21 May 2021]
Abstract: Gallium is an vital rare metal mainly because of its
growing demand in different domain of life. It has wide applications. Gallium
is considered as the backbone of the electronics industry. The supply and
demand of gallium-bearing products has gradually increased during the past
decade. Therefore, from the environmental stand point the need for sensitive
and reliable methods for determining trace concentrations of gallium has become
apparent in various fields. Gallium has become increasingly popular as a substrate
material for electronic devices. Aside from ore, gallium can be obtained from
such industrial sources as the Bayer process caustic liquor that is a byproduct
of bauxite processing, flue dust removed from the fume-collection system in
plants that produce aluminum by the electrolytic process, zinc refinery
residues, gallium scrap materials, and coal fly ash. The purification process
for gallium can start with solvent-extraction processes where the
concentrations of impurities, especially metals, are reduced to the ppm range.
The main aim of this paper is to simply put up the salient facts regarding gallium and identify applicable sources of
information thereby one may create a suitable environment for the development
of methods for the production of gallium via leaching through various waste
words: Gallium, Electronic
Industry, coal fly ash
Gallium was first
isolated by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in France in1875. The name is believed to
derive from ‘Gallia’ or from ‘Gallus’ (Latin for the French ‘coq’ or cockerel).
Commercial recovery of gallium first occurred in 1943 in the USA.
Occurrence and relative
Gallium is found
in variety of minerals aluminium and zinc with very low concentrations. When
these minerals are processed to recover the major metals present, the Gallium
tends to become more concentrated, and thus economic to extract. Gallium is
commonly associated in nature with aluminium, zinc and germanium. It is
primarily recovered from aluminium and zinc ores, coal. Gallium is usually
present in the range of 5-200ppm range in most minerals.
Table1. Gallium content in different minerals
Ga Content (ppm)
30 to 100
Hence, the industrial extraction of
gallium is an important investigation topic. There is a necessity of pure
gallium in large amounts[W.F. Hillebrand].
Gallium is a relatively common
metallic element that is chemically similar to aluminium, although it is nearly
as dense as iron in its pure form. High-purity gallium powder turns into a
liquid above about 27°C. It is found as a by-product of alumina production
where gallium is extracted, in an impure form, from the caustic liquor that is
generated during bauxite processing. This form is then further refined to high
purity (>99.9999%) gallium, also known as 6N Gallium. Gallium is also recovered
from the by-products of zinc refining (chiefly by Dowa Mining in Japan, and
possibly some Chinese producers). Gallium is mainly used either as an arsenide
(GaAs) or nitride (GaN). Together, these compounds account for about 98% of
gallium consumption worldwide. In addition to being a semi-conductor, gallium
arsenide converts electricity into light, and is therefore a key component of
light emitting diodes (LEDs).
End Users of Gallium
electronic metal. About 98% of Gallium metal is being used as Gallium Arsenide,
Gallium Phosphide and Gallium Gadolinium Garnet (GGG) Wafer products. Electron
mobility and activation energy of its inter-metallic compounds in Gallium are
found to be better than Germanium and Silicon. Gallium has promising future application
in low melting alloys for electrical contacts especially in solar cells where
it has an edge over its Silicon counterpart as it maintains the conversion
efficiency at higher temperatures.
Gallium is also used in Solar Neutrino Research. The electronic /opto -
electronic industry used Gallium and its compounds like Arsenide (GaAs) and
Gallium Phosphide (GaP), mostly as semiconductor materials. These
semiconductors find application, as raw material, in the manufacture of a large variety of electronic
products. A list of such products is presented below :
• Semi Conductors
• Laser Diodes
• Light Emitting Diodes (LED s)
• Photo Detectors
• Analogue and Digital ICs
• High performance photo-voltaic cells
• Computer Memory devices
• Superconductors and Super Conducting Magnets
• Magnetic Bubble Memories etc.
A Gallium Arsenide
chip has significances like: it can work five times faster than silicon, it
uses less power, it is less affected by radiation and it can convert electronic
signals to light. GaAs and silicon may be combine in a single chip by placing a
layer of Gallium and Arsenic atoms on a silicon base. Tilting the silicon base
by four degrees creates atomic steps on which Gallium and Arsenic atoms can
nestle comfortably. Hybrid chips may soon find wide applications in solar cells
and charge-coupled devices (which turn light into electronic signals). Silicon
crystals are physically much easier to grow than GaAs crystals and much cheaper
to produce. In 2000, GaAs chips cost 25% to 40% more than comparable silicon
devices. Advances in processing technology and larger GaAs wafer diameters are
urgently needed to bring down the price of GaAs components. It is therefore
referred to as the backbone of electronic industry [R.R. Moskalyk]
Application of Gallium
Electromotive: Gallium nitride (GaN) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) are
semiconductors and appear in compounds used in light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Gallium nitride (GaN) emits blue light in LEDs and is a key component in blue
laser devices that have become very popular. Other applications include
transistors, the manufacture of ultra-high speed logic chips, and for low-noise
microwave preamplifiers. It has been suggested that a liquid gallium-tin alloy
could be used to cool computer chips in place of water. The GaAs and GaN used
in electronic components, representing about 98% of the gallium consumption in
Energy: Gallium is
one of the promising photovoltaic compounds - copper indium gallium selenium
sulfide or CIGS, used to produce thin film solar panels, as an efficient
alternative to crystalline silicon.
Hydrogen fuel cell:
Aluminum-gallium alloy can potentially provide a solid hydrogen source for
transportation purposes, effectively a hydrogen fuel cell.
Medicine: Gallium is used in metal-in-glass high-temperature thermometers. A
low temperature liquid eutectic alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, is widely
available in medical thermometers (fever thermometers). Gallium citrate and
gallium nitrate are used as radiopharmaceutical agents in a nuclear medicine
imaging procedure commonly referred to as a gallium scan. Gallium-68 has been
used as an experimental positron emitting gallium isotope, in a PET scan
technique which combines features of the gallium scan and the CT/PET scan.
Gallium nitrate is
also used as an intravenous pharmaceutical to treat hypercalcemia associated
with tumor metastasis to bones and gallium maltolate is used in clinical and
preclinical trials as a potential treatment for cancer, infectious disease, and
inflammatory diseases. Research is being conducted to determine whether
gallium can be used to fight bacterial infections in people with cystic
fibrosis. Some research is being devoted to gallium alloys as substitutes for
mercury dental amalgam, but these compounds have yet to see wide acceptance [D.L. Smith et.al]
Gallium is used to create brilliant mirrors as gallium wets glass or
porcelain. It readily alloys with most metals, and has been used as a
component in low-melting temperature alloys and added in quantities up to 2% in
common solders can aid their wetting and flow characteristics.
Fig. 1. End use of Gallium
Hindustan Aluminium Company Ltd (HINDALCO) produces around 40-45 kg/annum of Gallium
Metal (3N grade, 99.9% purity) in India by the use of Mercury Amalgamation
Technology of BARC, Mumbai. The other Gallium Plant (with around 30kg/annum
capacity, 3N grade) at Madras Aluminium Company Ltd. (MALCO) is presently not
in operation. The same Mercury Amalgamation Technology was used but this was
provided by Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu.
requirement of Gallium was projected to be around 600 kg per annum in 1997
keeping in view the requirements for the Gallium Arsenide Technology (GATEC)
Project for production of Gallium Arsenide Semi-conductor Devices. Research
Institutes like Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (CMET),
Hyderabad; BARC, Mumbai; Anna University, Chennai; NFC, Hyderabad and a few
others are also presently engaged in the purification of Gallium metal from 3N
to 5N/ or 6N/7N Grade for meeting to the requirements of high end research.
industrial extraction of gallium is an important investigation topic.
No domestic primary gallium
recovery was reported in 2010. One company in Utah recovered and refined
gallium from scrap and impure gallium metal, and one company in Oklahoma
refined gallium from impure metal. Imports of gallium, which supplied most of
U.S. gallium consumption, were valued at about $35 million. Gallium arsenide
(GaAs) and gallium nitride (GaN) electronic components represented about 99% of
domestic gallium consumption. About 64% of the gallium consumed was used in
integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes,
light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors, and solar cells, represented 35%
of gallium demand. The remaining 1% was used in research and development,
specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in
areas such as aerospace, consumer goods, industrial equipment, medical
equipment, and telecommunications. ICs were used in defense applications,
high-performance computers, and telecommunications.
Gallium Market Survey
Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor devices market size was valued at USD 974.9
million in 2016. The market is expected to experience significant growth over
the next eight years, owing to the accelerating demand for power electronics that
consume less power and are energy efficient. GaN-based semiconductors possess
dynamic electrical and chemical properties, such as high-voltage breakdown and
saturation velocity that make them the appropriate choice for use in a variety
of switching devices [ D.A. Kamer].
Manufacturers are emphasizing on improving the GaN
technology and most of the technological advancements were made during 2010 to
2016. In 2010, the first Gallium Nitride power device was released by
International Rectifier. In 2012, the first 6 inchGaN-on-Si Epiwafers were
introduced in the market. The prominent industry players are engaged in
undertaking collaborations and strategic partnerships for developing and
improving the GaN technology [M.Frenzel et.al].
product Market scenario
The gallium market has continued to experience pressure
due to increased demand from LED manufacturers since the beginning of 2011.
Some producers have seen demand for LED applications double since the same time
last year. Many are speculating that increased demand for CIGS photovoltaic
cells, following concerns about nuclear energy arising from the situation in
Japan, will push gallium prices well above $1000/kg by the mid-point of 2011.
There may still be room for gallium to go higher; however, many producers in
China already have plans in place to significantly expand production capacity
by the start of 2012. According to some calculations, if all the new capacity
is completed on time, Chinese gallium production could double to over 100MT in
2012. Even if new production is just half of this, it will help to bring
stability back to the market. SMI Ltd. expects gallium prices to peak in the
third quarter of 2011.
Review of Work
years the increasing demand of gallium in electronic and other industries has
magnified the need for a simple and rapid method for the determination and
recovery of gallium from aluminum ores, zinc ores, coal, fly ash etc. Following
approaches have been adopted for the production at commercial scale and
recovery at trace level.
Technologies required for Production
at commercial scale
• Mercury Amalgamation Technology.
• Cementation Technology.
• Solvent Extraction Technology*; and
• Ion-exchange Resin Technology*.
[*The latter two
technologies are typically employed for the Bayer liquors having lower
concentration of gallium. However ion exchange resin technology is considered
as the latest and most eco friendly process for recovery of gallium metal from
Bayer liquor of alumina refinery]
Recovery from ores and industrial
waste at trace level
(i)Recovery of gallium can be done by solvent
extraction, which is one of the wide spread method from dilute sources.
Generally following extractants are used for solvent
(a) phosphorous containing compounds have been used
for the solvent extraction of gallium(III): These are, for example,
di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) tributyl phosphate (TBP) and
trioctylamine (TOA). Solvent extraction stripping experiments for gallium(III)
have been performed with D2EHPAin kerosene from sulphuric acid solution, but
requires multistage extraction, extraction upto 87.9% only and requires high
temperature. The extraction of gallium(III) from aqueous solution containing
hydrochloric acid and or lithium chloride by TBP and TOA in benzene have been
investigated. Micro quantities of gallium(III) from sulphuric acid leaching of
secondary sublimates were extracted with TBP from hydrochloric acid solution in
presence of macro components such as Fe, P, K, Na and Al. [S. K. Mohamed]
(b)Oxygen containing extractants: such as 4-ethyl,
1-methyl, 7-octyl, 8-hydroxy quinoline (Kelex 100), triphenyl arsine oxide,
isobutylmethyl ketone (MIBK), 8-quinolinol and 3,5-dichlorophenol,
2,4-pentanedione, 3,5-dichlorophenol16 have been reported for the extraction of
gallium(III). However, these methods suffer from drawbacks, such as long
equilibrium time, low percentage recovery.
(c)High molecular weight amines (HMWA) have emerged as
powerful extractants for some metals: Recently, it has been shown that the
extractants Adogen 364,17 tricaprylmethyl ammonium chloride (Aliquat-336),
Amberlite LA-2,tris-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl) amine (H3tdmba),23
trioctylmethylammoniumchloride (TOMAC),24 trioctylamine and TOMAC25 and the
octyltrimethylammonium cation are effective extractants for the extraction of
anionic complexes of gallium(III). Adogen 364 undergoes self association during
extraction. Addition of a syngergist with Aliquat 336 enhances the extraction.
extractants: Some other extractants are also
reported for extraction of gallium(III) are 3,5-dibromosalicyaldehyde
acetohydrazone (DBSAH), 3,5-dibromosalicyaldehyde benzoylhydrazone (DBSBH),
3,5-dibromosalicyaldehyde isomicotinylhydrazone (DBSIH). 5-Sulfo-8-quinolinol
(H2QS)28 and 2-theonyltrifluoroacetone29 have been used as extractants for
gallium(III) but suffer from long phase separation time28 and low rate of
extraction. Tri-n-octylphosphine oxide,30 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-3-hydroxy and
1-(4-ethylphenyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methyl- 4-pyridone31 and 2-bromodecanoic acid
have also been used.
(ii)The methods for determining trace gallium at
present mainly include atomic absorption spectrometry and chromatography.
Photometry mainly uses fluorescent ketone, quinoline, azo and Rhodamine as
separation and Pre-concentration
Pre-concentration procedures are often necessary for
the determination of gallium because most analytical techniques do not possess
adequate sensitivity for direct determination. Spectrophotometeric and other
methods of analysis if the concentration of the analyte is too low to be
determined or matrix interferences cannot be controlled. Several separation
techniques have been proposed to solve this problem like,
Acid digestion is the most widely used method for
pre-treatment of different types of samples prior to detection of gallium by
most of the available techniques.
Pre treatments of the samples:
(a)Zinc ore: In the hydrometallurgical zinc process to
treat zinc concentrate, more than 98% of the gallium comes into the leach
residue. In the leach residue, a significant part of zinc remains in the form
of zinc ferrite (ZnO·Fe2O3), most of gallium presents in the form of
isomorphism in zinc ferrite. Because zinc ferrite is difficult to dissolve in
low acid, extraction of gallium from zinc residue has a certain degree of
difficulty. Dumping of residues is a solution to the problem of stockpiling
site. So an economical route to extract them would serve as an incentive to
carry out the extraction process. To recover the zinc and gallium, iron must be
into the solution. There are two main ways to make iron into solution. One is
hot acid leaching which needs high temperature and high acid concentration, the
other is reductive leaching using sulfurdioxide as reductant in sulfuric acid
solution. Sulfur dioxide is an efficient leaching agent for minerals containing
oxides of iron, nickel, cobalt and manganese.
(b)Bauxite ore: The recovery of Ga from bauxite ores
is based on the Bayer process, in which Al is extracted by hot alkaline
digestion, Ga being concentrated in the Bayer liquors up to 0.19 g/L. The
recovery methods of Ga from these liquors are based on Al–Ga precipitation by
CO2 and subsequent NaOH re-dissolution, on selective Ga extraction
using liquid–liquid solvent extraction and ion exchange methods and on
employing Hg amalgam with subsequent addition of NaOH. The Ga recovery from
acidic solutions produced during Zn processing also involve liquid–liquid
solvent extraction, while other Ga recovery methods from liquors include the
use of insoluble amphoteric adsorbents or membranes. However, the difficulties associated with isolation
of Ga from Al always necessitate an
electrolysis procedure to obtain high purity Ga end products.
(c) Coal fly ash: Two-stage leaching with hydrochloric
acid is employed which fits the needs of the subsequent extraction of gallium
by the foam. Before hydrochloric acid is selected, potassium hydroxide and
sodium chloride are used as leaching reagents to test the extraction by an
amidoxime resin and foam, respectively. The analysis of both leach solutions by
AAS is identical to that of their blanks with regard to the absorbance, showing
that no gallium was extracted. Two types of ashes are roasted in a muffle
furnace in an air atmosphere at 500°C for 10 h before leaching to concentrate
gallium. Although gallium is not lost due to sublimation under the conditions
tested, the particle size of the fly ash increased, thereby decreasing the
surface area and depressing the gallium leached under the mild conditions. A
set of comparison experiments shows that the leaching efficiency decreases
(d) Flue dust: At the beginning of leach test,
sulfuric acid solution is added into the glass vessel. Heating of the solution
is started and when the solution reached the desired temperature, flue dust is
added. At selected time intervals, slurry sample is withdrawn, centrifuged and
filtered. The filtrate is analyzed for gallium.
Methods of determination in various
There are quite good number of methods are available for the determination of gallium at
trace level from various waste samples.
Generally, Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission
spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
(ICP-MS), Atomic Absorption spectrometry, Spectrophotometery, XRD etc are used.
mentioned literature review gave us an insight about of the usage of different
technologies to determine and recover gallium from various waste samples.
K. P. P. R. M. Reddy et.al (2007) proposed a simple,
sensitive, and selective second order derivative spectrophotometric method for the determination of microgram quantities
of gallium(III) especially in presence of large excess of indium(III).
2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (HMBAINH) chromogene
was used along with 0.2% of triton X-100. The complex formed showed maximum
absorption at 405 nm and at pH 5.0, where the reagent has negligible
absorbance. A second order derivative spectrum of the complex solution showed
maximum derivative amplitude at 415 nm and again at 460 nm with a zero cross at
442 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 0.036-1.533 µg/ml and
0.070-1.533 µg/ml of Ga(III) at 415 nm and 460 nm, respectively. However, at
404 nm In(III)-HMBAINH complex showed zero amplitude in the second order
derivative spectrum where Ga(III)-HMBAINH obeyed Beer's law in the range of
0.070-1.394 µg/ml. This allows determination of Ga(III) in presence of large
excess of In(III) by second order derivative spectrophotometric method. The
tolerance limits of other diverse ions and other analytical parameters were
Kh. D. Nagiev et.al (2007) developed
a Photometric determination of gallium in the presence of aluminum. The
complexation of gallium(III) with
2,2′,3,4-tetrahydroxy-3′-sulfo-5′-nitrobenzene in the presence of and without
1,10-phenanthroline was studied. In the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline, a
mixed-ligand complex with the component ratio 1 : 2 : 1 and the stability
constant logβ = 15.5 ± 0.2 is formed. The different parameters like pH, time,
temperature, and the concentration of components on the formation of the binary
and mixed-ligand complexes of gallium were studied.
S. K. Mohamed (2006) developed an Ion selective
electrode for Gallium determination in Nickel alloy, Fly-ash and biological
samples. A poly(vinyl chloride)-based
(DDTCT) with sodium tetraphenyl borate (STB) as an anion excluder and dibutyl
phthalate (DBP), dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP), tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate
(TEP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) as plasticizing solvent mediators was
prepared and used as a selective electrode to investigate Ga(III). The best
result shown with the membrane having the ligand-PVC-DBP-STB composition 1 : 4
: 1 : 1, which worked well over a wide concentration range (1.45 Ã— 10 to 0.1
mol L-1) with a Nernstian slope of 28.7 mV per decade of activity between pH
4.0 and 10.0.
N. K. Agnihotri et.al. (2004) proposed a method for
non-extractive simultaneous determination of thallium(III) and gallium(III) in
environmental and standard samples with
2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol in cationic micellar medium The
molar absorption coefficient and LOD of a 1:1 complex with
2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol in the presence of
cetylpyridinium chloride were 52 500 and 0.042 ng/ml, respectively. The
determination ranges of Tl3+ and Ga3+ in the presence of each other found were
0.10-2.46 and 0.04-1.05 µg/ml, respectively; the RSD for samples containing
1.23 µg/ml Tl3+ and 0.42 µg/ml Ga3+ were 1.43 and 1.65%, respectively. The
method was used for the simultaneous determination of the two metal ions in
environmental samples, several CRM and synthetic binary mixtures.
H. Minamisawa et.al (2004) developed a method and
successfully applied to trace gallium analysis in environmental water samples.
Synthetic zeolites were dissolved in nitric acid, and the resulting solution
used as a coprecipitant for the preconcentration of trace amounts of gallium in
water samples prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption
spectrometry (ETAAS). The gallium preconcentration conditions and the ETAAS
measurement conditions were optimized. Gallium was quantitatively concentrated
with the zeolites coprecipitate from pH 6.0 to 8.0. The coprecipitate was
easily dissolved in nitric acid, and an aliquot of the resulting solution was
introduced directly into a tungsten metal furnace. The atomic absorbance of
gallium in the resulting solution was measured by ETAAS. An ashing temperature
of 400Â°C and an atomizing temperature of 2600Â°C were selected. The
calibration curve was linear up to 3.0 Âµg of gallium and passed through the origin.
The detection limit (S/N â‰¥ 3) for gallium was 0.08 Âµg/100 cm3. The RSD at
1.0 Âµg/100 cm3 was 3.0% (n = 5).
L. Q. Wang et.al.(2003) developed a method for
Photometric determination of gallium in coal gangue. Method includes non-ionic surfactant OP and trihydroxyethylamine (TEA)-HCl buffer
with pH 8.5, 5-Br-PADAP which reacts
with Ga(III) to form a red-colored complex with its mole ratio [Ga(III) : R] of
1 to 1 The interferences of Cu2+, Cd2+, Th4+, Fe3+, U(VI), Zn2+ and Al3+ were
eliminated by the use of HCl with n-butyl acetate.
H. Filik et.al. (2002) proposed a method to determine
Galliium (III) with rutin spectrophotometrically. Gallium (III) was complexed
with the flavonoid ligand rutin in ammonium acetate solution at pH 7.0 The
complete determination was carried out using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 430
nm. The effects of a cationic surfactant and its concentration and pH on
sensitivity of the method were investigated. The method was applied to
determining gallium (III) in the mineral sphalerite.
L. Xu et.al. (2002) determined trace gallium in lead
and zinc ores by AAS. The Sample (0.5 g)
was digested with HNO3 , H2SO4
and HF. The residue produced was dissolved in 5 ml 6M-HCl prior to treatment
with 15 ml 6M-HCl and TiCl3 solution to light purple for extraction
with butyl acetate. The organic phase was back-extracted at pH 2 with H2O
for flame AAS determination and Ga was measured at 294.4 nm The detection limit
for Ga was 0.8 µg/ml.
Itsuo Mori et.al. (1999) used chelating azo dyes, PAR,
5-Br.PADAP along with different combination of surfactants and sample solution
to develop colour for a selective spectrophotometric determination of
gallium(III) without interference of aluminium(III).5-Br.PADAP in tested
azo-dyes, and surfactant-combination of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as an
anionic surfactant and Brij 35 (polyoxyethylene)dodecylether) as a nonionic
surfactant was selected for a selective determination of gallium(III) in the
presence of aluminum(III).The proposed method showed a sufficient selectivity
in comparison with other spectrophotometric methods using a chelating azo-dye
alone without surfactant; it was scarcely affected by coexisting-aluminum(III).
The method was applied to artificial waste water containing gallium(III),
Tsuo Mori et.al.(1988) developed the method for the
spectrophotometric determination of Gallium (III) using o-Hydroquinonephthalein
(Qnph) in the presence of surfactant micellar.
The color systems at various pH were investigated between various metal
ions and Qnph as a xanthene dye as well as in the presence or absence of
various water soluble surfactants (cationic. anionic, non-ionic surfactants).
The coexistence of cationic and non-ionic surfactants, such as Zephiramine (Zp)
and Brij 35, was found most effective
for the color systems between Qnph and gallium(III), as a metal ion, in weakly
acidic media. The calibration curve was rectilinear in the range of 0∼7.0 μg of
gallium(III) in a final solution of 10ml at pH 6.4.
With the rise in the growth of electronic industries,
there is a steep rise in demand of gallium. India has potential to reduce the
gap of demand of gallium due to increasing alumina production. Now it is the
crucial time to develop methods by the judicial use of new technologies and
sophisticated instruments for the determination and recovery/leaching of
gallium from various important waste samples.
Larger amounts of gallium could be recovered from
these sources if more efficient and improved extraction and separation methods
are developed in the future.
We would like to thank Director, Sal Education Dr.
Rupesh Vasani always providing an opportunity and providing platform to do
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