Journal of Ravishankar University–B, 34 (1), 87-95 (2021)
Various Techniques of MPPT
Based Charge Controller & Comparison of A/C with D/C Home Appliances - A
Gajendra Singh Rathorea*, B. Gopal
Krishnaa, R.N. Patelb, Sanjay Tiwaria
Research Laboratory, School of Studies in Electronics & Photonics, Pt.
Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, India
of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Raipur, India
[Received: 27 May 2021;
Revised: 25 June 2021; Accepted: 22 July 2021]
Controlling the PV array to generate the maximum power at certain
environment conditions, the efficiency of the PV generation system could be
improved. Using control algorithms, the PV array can operate at the maximum
power point. This self-optimization process is referred as Maximum power point
tracking (MPPT). A maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is a power electronic
DC-DC converter inserted between the PV array and its load to achieve optimum
matching. Researchers have studied & developed numerous methods and used
many algorithms to track the Maximum power point of PV Module and extract
maximum power using MPPT technique. This review article accumulates various
algorithms through which MPPT could be attained and assists the researchers to
understand the principle of their working. The paper also gives an idea to
about less explored DC appliances & their viabilities in existing &
proposed DC system.
Keywords: PV system, Modeling & Simulation, MPPT Charge
Controllers, INC algorithm, P&O algorithm, DC home
In last few years, it has become noticeable that
fossil fuel resources are fast depleting and that the fossil fuel era is
gradually coming to an end. This is particularly true for oil and natural gas.
It will be useful therefore to examine the rates of consumption of the
different sources of energy and to give some indications of the reserves
available. As per International Energy Agency, the demand of energy grew by
2.3% worldwide last year, which claimed to be quickest of any decade. Natural gas
as the fuel is emerged as one of the preferred, resulting in record growth and
accounting for 45% of the rise in energy consumption. Demand for all fuels
increased, with fossil fuels meeting nearly 70% of the growth for the second
year running. Solar and wind generation grew at double-digit pace, with solar
alone increasing by 31%. Renewables were a major contributor to this power
generation expansion, accounting for remarkable gain of nearly half of
electricity demand growth.
Electrical energy is produced using different
sources of energy mainly categorized as non-renewable and renewable energy. We
are aware that the non-renewable sources are posing a serious threat to the
earth’s environment so, to mitigate the threat posed by constant using of
non-renewable sources, the electricity supply industry is gradually moving to
the use of renewable energy sources, which represent a sustainable path. Out of
explored renewable energy sources, the PV power generation has enormous
potential to reduce CO2 emissions very effectively, Despite of the
numerous merits, few lags we enlisted is that, the solar resource is quite
unpredictable and power can only be produce during daytime. The irregular
behavior of moving clouds can cause fluctuations in the output power of PV
generators. If a large amount of photovoltaic power is injected into the power
grid then large power fluctuations will be expected, which have the potential
to cause voltage imbalances, frequency instabilities and power imbalances in
the power grid (Tiwari Sanjay et al., 2014; Tiwari Sanjay et al., 2009; Tiwari Sanjay et al., 2006; Appen J. V. et al., 2013).
Such intermittence of the solar energy resource is
the reason why solar PV power is considered to be an intermittent source of
power and to be classified as non-firm generation. Energy storage turns this on
its head, as it compensates very effectively for the fluctuating power outputs
of the PV generators, provided the Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) has
been properly rated at the design stage. To supplement the output power of PV
generators, in-situ energy storage devices are often used. This allows excess
power to be stored and used at times when there is insufficient PV power
generation due to cloudy weather or no PV power generation at all, such as at
night. The BESS technology has the potential to improve the reliability and
power quality of the electrical energy fed into the utility grid (Spiers D., 2012).
Maximum Power Point Tracking
efficiency of the PV system can be increased by using power electronic devices
along with maximum power point controller. The extraction of maximum available
power from a photovoltaic module is done by Maximum Power Point Tracking
Controller. The efficiency of the photovoltaic system may be substantially
increased by using maximum power point tracker (MPPT). Several algorithms are
developed to track the maximum power point efficiently. Most of the existing
MPPT algorithms suffer from the drawback of being slow tracking. Due to this,
the utilization efficiency is reduced. The various methods of maximum power
point technique algorithms such as Incremental Conductance (INC) and
Perturbation and Observation (P&O) have been discussed.
output obtained from the MPPT controller contains harmonics due to the closed
loop tracking of sun light. This can be eliminated by using the filter
circuits. From this, the obtained output is given to power electronic devices
DC-DC converter and inverter. The various power electronic converters circuits
and the control techniques are discussed. In the article, a survey has been
done on the performances of different algorithms used to implement Maximum
Power Point Tracking, Power electronic circuits and their controlling using
various controlling techniques are reviewed.
Iluliana Bratcu et al. (Antoneta Iluliana Bratcu et al., 2008) studied maximum
power point tracking of grid-connected PV arrays by using extremum seeking
control. Using a two-stage conversion system that comprised of a DC-DC boost
converter and a DC-AC inverter, the energy generated by PV array is transferred
to single-phased utility grid. The performance of a control method based upon
extremum seeking control (ESC) is then evaluated and demonstrated. ESC
basically belongs to P&O based Maximum power point tracking technique. The
simulation results proved ESC as effective technique for tracking at variable
conductance method based maximum power point tracking technique to achieve the
maximum power point is demonstrated by Esram et al. (Esram T. et al., 2008) to
locate the current operating point in PV characteristic. To attain the maximum
power point of the PV module, Bhasme et al. (Bhasme Swati et al., 2012) used
current feedback loop with PI controller. Researcher made a comparison of
measured value of PV Current with reference values and found the curves closer.
The measurements were done under standard climatic condition.
et al. (Makhlouf M. et al., 2012) presented mathematical modeling of MPPT to
achieve the voltage and current at the maximum power point and hence the
maximum power. K. Manohar et al. (Manohar K. et al., 2012) used
Perturb-and-observe method to attain maximum power point tracking and analyze
fault. Boost circuit is used by Wenhao et al. (CAI Wenhao et al., 2012) to
achieve the MPPT. It uplifts the low voltage of PV array to permissible line
power point tracking control technique is used primarily to extract maximum
capable power of the PV modules at particular solar irradiance and temperature
at any time frame. Numerous algorithms were developed to track the maximum
power point effectively. It is observed that slow tracking is one of the
prominent issues with most of the MPPT algorithms as a result of which the
utilization efficiency is reduced. To improve the solar energy efficiency
various MPPT control techniques are developed; such as Incremental Conductance
(INC), Hill Climbing or Perturbation and Observation (P&O), Artificial
Neural Network (ANN) with back propagation technique, Fuzzy Logic Controller
Intelligent Control (FLCIC) with DC-DC converter, Particle Swarm Optimization,
Open Circuit Voltage Control (OCVC), Short-Circuit Current Control (SCCC),
feedback of power variation with voltage technique, feedback of power variation
with current technique, single input fuzzy controller for tracking MPP, Ant
Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) methods.
Wu et al.
(Wu L. et al., 2007) illustrates that the output obtained from the PV system is
regulated by MPPT and it provides that output to the DC converter and inverter.
The power transferred to the load or network is increased, if the PV output
voltage is higher than MPP. The variation on MPPT efficiency depends on cell
temperature and fill factor as observed by Piegari and Rizzo (Piegari L. et al.,
2010). The paper presents the observation of MPPT techniques for different
applications and systems.
al. (Azli N.A. et al., 2008) identifies the efficiency variation of 4-5% by
considering the modification in fill factor with geographical & climate
condition. Paper also proposes that with variation in temperature of the PV
system the MPPT performance also improves. Modeling of MPPT with buck converter
having less than 0.5% oscillations in the output power is discussed by Tauseef
and Nowicki (Tauseef M. et al., 2012). The paper also suggests that the ratio
of does not relies completely on the climatic
conditions as far as MPPT controller for PV cell with two-diode model is
connect the PV panel with batteries and inverters to utility grid, a single
chip IC circuit for MPPT is designed by Mattavelli et al. (Mattavelli P. et al.,
2010). The system facilitates to test the MPPT response for PV short-circuit
current variations and by implementing step DC voltage, the transient response
of the system has been verified.
et al. (Al-Bahadili H. et al., 2013) simulated a system to evaluate the MPPT
algorithm performance for PV system and the design provides flexibility to
study different PV solar cells operating at varying irradiance level and
temperature. Wu et al. (Wu X. et al., 2009) anticipated the MPPT method
performances to attain the efficiency of 98% of the real output power in the
common insolation condition.
observed that under rapid weather changing conditions, power losses are
significant, and this could be reduced by implementing voltage control MPPT as
proposed by Kadri et al. (Kadri R. et al., 2011). The above system is also
effective for reflecting the power grid side using grid current components. The
change in power by the different level of irradiation and the correct direction
of MPP could be reflected by error signal of a PI outer voltage regulator. With
the proposed method of Thao and Uchida (Thao N.G.M. et al., 2013) for single
phase grid connected system the MPP will assist to reach unity power factor
even if the solar irradiance and temperature vary abruptly.
(INC) based MPPT Techniques
Conductance Technique, an algorithm used to attain MPP operating point, works
on the principle of adaptive step variation in voltage as a function of slope
of PV curve. The curve pattern is used for iteration steps to get changes in
voltage step value. This adaptive variation makes PV system sensitive towards
the varying atmospheric condition and quickly attains the MPP operating point
so that more and more energy could be extracted from PV generation system. The
MPP is tracked by identifying the peak of the P-V curve. INC uses instantaneous
conductance I/V and dI/dV for tracking MPPT. Based on the values of dI/dV, the
algorithm varies the duty cycle and determines the location of the operating
point of the PV module in the P-V curve showing that the PV module operates at
the MPP along with both sides of the MPP in the P-V curve. Flow chart of the
algorithm is as shown in Figure 2.
algorithm in MPP tracking technique determines the direction of radiation to
change the voltage even when rapid change in climate condition observed and
quickly tracks and calculate the MPP. This speed is further improved by
implementing variable step size INC algorithm, which is being presented by Liu
et al. (Liu F. et al., 2008). This technique eliminates the oscillation issue
of P&O algorithm, although the efficiency variation is not that significant
in any of the algorithm, under uniform climate condition (Hohm D. P. et al.,
T. et al., 2007). The inclusion of high sampling compliance
and speed control results in relatively high cost. Hill climbing algorithm was
the widely accepted in MPP tracking during earlier days but later it gets
obsolete as it persist the drawback of larger step size error with increase in
speed and higher error step size reduces the efficiency of MPPT under rapid
atmospheric fluctuations (Kazmi S. M. R. et al., 2009). The biggest
complication for implementing INC algorithm was the selection of fixed voltage
change step size which can fulfill the demand of tracking speed along with
retaining MPP, large step size makes the system easier to reach MPP but at the
same time this creates the condition of oscillation around MPP while smaller
step size reduces the problem of oscillation but the tracking speed slowdowns.
al. (Liu B. et al., 2007) acknowledged the condition and designed an enhanced
Incremental Conductance algorithm to negotiate between the dynamic response and
steady state oscillation by implementing variable voltage step size. This algorithm
contracted the oscillations and improved the efficiency of system.
al. (Yusof Y. et al., 2004) designed an algorithm using C-programming which can
sustain the variation occurred by temperature and also reduce the effects
produced by variable voltage of battery. Comparison amongst four different MPPT
techniques were carried out by Murtaza et al. (Murtaza A.F. et al., 2013) using
MATLAB model and found INC based technique to be far better amongst them, when
weather condition are varying quickly. This method showed good dynamic
performance. Keyrouz and Georges (Keyrouz F. et al., 2011) merged two
algorithms to track the rapidly varying environmental condition.
Li (Wolfs P. et al., 2006) calculated the cell output power and perturbed the
cell voltage for every MPPT cycle for comparing Hill Climbing or Perturbation
and Observation and Incremental Conductance methods. They used P&O
algorithm to overcome the oscillation problem in INC technique. To validate a
tracking theoretical performance analysis, a triple junction solar cell model
was simulated. Using DC-DC converter as isolation stage for load connected PV
system, Adly et al. (Adly M. et al., 2012) tested the Incremental Conductance
under fast changing environmental conditions & analyzed that 15% energy
extraction losses could be saved using INC algorithm.
harvest maximum output power from a PV module Nabulsi et al. (Nabulsi A. Al et
al., 2011) suggested Hill Climbing using Incremental Conductance based MPPT
technique. The authors optimized the duty cycle, which resulted in maximum
power delivery from the PV system through DC/DC converter to the load, but the
oscillation of operating point around MPP introduced power losses in the
Observation based MPPT algorithm
P&O algorithm is also called “hill-climbing”, while both names refer to the
same algorithm depending on how it is implemented. Hill-climbing consist of a
perturbation on the duty cycle of the power converter and P&O algorithm
refers to perturbation in the operating voltage of the DC link between the PV
array and the power converter. The basic principle on which P&O algorithm
works is, if there is a positive change in the power, the perturbation should
be kept in the same direction and if the power decreases, then the next
perturbation should be in the opposite direction. The process is kept on
repetition until the Maximum Power Point is reached which causes oscillation
around the peak. This oscillation could be reduced by reducing the perturbation
size. Generally, the perturbation size is kept very small in order to keep the
power variation as small as possible but this trade-off makes the algorithm
slower to track the environmental variations & hence this cannot be
implemented where fast varying atmospheric conditions is observed.
power fluctuations caused by variation observed in irradiance level in the Hill
Climbing P&O method is elucidated by Liu et al. (Liu C. et al., 2004),
according to the paper, the incremental change in power is measured & if
value is positive, the operating voltage is increased to get Maximum power
point while the direction of voltage modification is reversed when found
negative and bring the operating point as closest to MPPT as possible (Yafaoui
A. et al., 2007). The process can be understood by following flowchart figure 3.
AC and DC Technology
of electrical power distribution, earlier, Direct current (DC) was the standard
current but due to flaws in DC system, AC turned in as the current standard due
to its ability to step up low voltage into high voltage, and to transmit it
over long with the help of the transformer. The revolution in the power
electronics sector, bought back the development & transmission of DC power (Rashid M., 2011). DC transformers that can step- up and step-down a DC voltage is
already developed in the form of Power electronic converters. DC transmission
has already been a widely accepted technology in the world (Rudervall R., 2000). A number of high voltage DC transmission systems over long distance
have been widely installed, which performs more excellent than AC regarding the
economy and environment. In the field of the distribution system, data center
became a promising market for DC system due to its high requirement of DC (Al
Lee G. et al., 2012). Some of the pilot projects reported that distribution
systems in the DC version are able to avoid conversion stage losses and result
in more than 10% energy saving, even 20% reduction of the overall operating
cost of data center can be achieved (Becker D. J. et al., 2011; Anand S. et
al., 2010). Therefore, DC distribution presents a more efficient way for data
center. In addition, telecommunication systems are used to transfer large
amount of data, where the 48V DC distribution system is used to provide high
reliability (Anand S. et al., 2010).
advantages of DC multi terminal networks with large number of decentralized
power generators are well mentioned by Doncker (Doncker R.W.D., 2014). Advantages like higher efficiency in energy conversion systems, higher
power capacity in DC cables, Lower cost in structure used for energy conversion
systems, less maintenance cost and higher reliability of the decentralized
power generators are among the few of them. The concept of DC micro-grid and
its ability to be controlled at constant value is conceptualized by Hiroaki
Kakigano (Kakigano Hiroaki, 2006). Paper acknowledges the positive effect of DC
micro-grid to the utility grid & to the customers.
D.J., 2007) compiled the advantages of DC grid distribution
system over AC grid distribution system. These advantages incorporate
uninterruptible supplies, voltage stability, reliability, renewable energy
resources, variable-speed drives, power quality concerns, fluorescent lighting
J.A., 2016; Hailu Tsegay, 2016) shows the protection strategies
of voltage weak DC distribution system. The analysis of different DC grid
architectures was carried out by comparing voltage stiff and voltage weak DC
distribution grids. The natural behaviors of such systems from a control and a
protection perspective are also addressed.
numerous energy efficient products that are internally compatible with DC.
These DC appliances utilize DC power internally. Among these products are the
LED lights, mobile phones, laptops, PC’s and many electronic loads such as DC
refrigerators, DC blenders, heaters, DC fans, hair dryers etc. LVDC
distribution system is suggested by Salomonsson (Salomonsson A.S. et al., 2007) for sensitive electronic loads in office buildings & house hold,
using different loads, which includes a lamp, a compact fluorescent lamp, a
computer and a coffee maker, using AC and DC system for evaluation and
comparison purposes and less losses were observed when the load was supplied
with the DC system compared to the conventional AC system as per experimental
energy efficiency analysis of DC products was carried out by Garbesi (Garbesi Karina, 2011). The studies shows the comparison for DC and AC products using DC
lamps, air conditioners, refrigerator/freezers and it was observed that the DC
products were found more energy efficient than the AC products based on
available data. However, in this study, it was also concluded that the DC
products were costlier than the AC products of same specification but
efficiency is found much higher which can come out as a parameter to trade-off
and definitely the technological advances will reduce their pricing later on. In
another perspective, direct current is currently involved in another project in
which the AC grid instead of updating to DC, is totally converted to DC grid
which will be economically viable in terms of equipment installation costs.
al. (Koh L.H. et al., 2011) developed a LVDC grid lighting system using LED
lamps and demonstrated that the energy savings in the LVDC LED system was more
in comparison to the conventional AC lighting system.
has presented a comprehensive study and provides a brief comparison amongst
various types of algorithm primarily Incremental Conductance (INC) and
Perturbation & Observation (P&O) techniques for implementation of MPPT
based power extraction from photovoltaic system. Numerous modifications such as
number of control variables, control strategies, circuitry etc. done by
researchers is being analysed and compared; which offers an idea to implement
the most suitable technique as per available parameters for specific
application. With the above study, we observed that upto 4% of the efficiency
is affected by the variations of the fill factor which can be saved using MPPT
technique, this also helps to extract 98% of real maximum output power and it
is also observed that 15% energy extraction losses could be saved using INC algorithm.
having limitation of slow tracking and low utilization efficiency INC and
P&O based MPPT algorithm still remains the favorite and few further
modifications can improvise the extraction efficiency. Improved filter circuits
could be used to reduce the harmonic content at the output of DC-DC converter
while high frequency current ripples could be minimized using filter
capacitors. The contributions in the potential area of charge controllers and
power conditioners encouraged the power generation using Solar Modules although
it is expected that better methods of modeling and control design will make the
photovoltaic system more efficient for grid integration.
article AC and DC are also compared based on current technology and it was also
found out that there was a 14% energy savings if AC/DC conversions are avoided
and 33% gain shifting to DC. The analysis and evaluation of technical and
economic aspects could be carried out on common electric devices and household
appliances to determine the possibility and feasibility of transition to DC.
However, the evaluation of DC distribution grid transition for common electric
devices and household appliances will be limited to low DC distribution grids
for residential sector. We anticipate that DC system will draw less energy from
grid due to less conversion stages in grid feed-out process than AC system. In
low PV generation with small battery, power from PV and grid will go through
more conversion stages in AC system than that in DC system, thus, might results
in more losses.
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