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Author(s): Preeti Verma*, S. K. Chatterjee, Sanjay Ghosh, Deepak Sinha

Email(s): preeti.sweta8@gmail.com

Address: Department of Chemistry, Govt. Nagarjuna Post Graduate College of Science, Raipur, (C.G.) 492010
Department of Chemistry, Govt. M.V.P.G. College, Mahasamund, (C.G.) 493554

Published In:   Volume - 33,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2020


Cite this article:
Verma et al. (2020). Soil Contamination in the Industrial Vicinity of Bemetara and Raipur District of Chhattisgarh, India. Journal of Ravishankar University (Part-B: Science), 33(1), pp. 58-64.



        Journal of Ravishankar University–B, 33 (1), 58-64 (2020)

 

 

Soil Contamination in the Industrial Vicinity of Bemetara and Raipur District of Chhattisgarh, India

Preeti Verma1٭, S. K. Chatterjee2, Sanjay Ghosh1, Deepak Sinha1

1Department of Chemistry, Govt. Nagarjuna Post Graduate College of Science, Raipur, (C.G.) 492010

2 Department of Chemistry, Govt. M.V.P.G. College, Mahasamund, (C.G.) 493554

*Corresponding author: preeti.sweta8@gmail.com

[Received: 16 October 2019; Revised version:  25 September 2020; Accepted: 27 September 2020]

Abstract: Soil samples (≤ 50) samples were collected around the different industries located in Chhattisgarh. Soil samples were collected from the 15 c.m. depth during post monsoon 2018 from the different industries of Bemetara and Raipur District (C.G., India). Chemical analysis of these samples indicates that due to industrial pollutants the adverse effect shown in crop growing fields. Around rice mill Fe concentration observed 19.36 - 19.23 mg/kg, Cu concentration observed 1.23-1.65 mg/kg, Mn concentration observed 26.44 – 25.51 mg/kg and Zn is observed 0.96 -0.49 mg/kg from 50 m – 4500 m distance. Around Sponge iron industry the concentration of Fe is observed 16.41 – 16.88 mg/kg, Cu is observed 1.79 – 1.94 mg/kg, Mn is observed 16.43 – 16.51 mg/kg, and Zn is observed 0.64 – 0.65 mg/kg from 50 m – 4500 m distance. Same as around the power plant industry the concentration of Fe is observed 11.35-11.39 mg/kg, Cu is observed 2.36-2.58 mg/kg, Mn is observed 29.41 – 29.39 mg/kg and Zn is observed 0.85 – 0.84 mg/kg from 50 m to 4500 m distance.

Key words: Industry, heavy metals, pollutants, concentration, distance.

Introduction

The biological components of the terrestrial ecosystem which contain the vegetation, soil, macro and micro-organisms survive in a balanced inter-relationship that provides undisrupted, stability, succession improvement and production (Nzegbule et al., 2006). Soils are considered to be the best medium to observe pollution because pollutants are usually deposited in the upper layer of soil (Govil et al., 2002). In our environment metal exist as a natural constituent. Some metals are very essential to human body for their physiological phenomena but high quantity of these metals shows harmful effect on living body (Cho et al. 2019). Accumulation of heavy metals naturally takes place in our environment, but its concentrations increases by different human activities (Saba et al., 2019). Now a day some  metals like iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) are known as a very important heavy metals for plant kingdom when it is used in required amounts which help the physical growth and development of plants (Aziz et al., 2015). Our environment becomes polluted at 20th century by increasing heavy metals, an outcome is observed as various health problems of human being (A. et al., 2018). Heavy metal polluted soil adversely affects the entire ecosystem when these toxic metals move into groundwater or consupted by fauna and flora, which may result in great risk to ecosystem due to bioaccumulation and translocation (Bhagure et al., 2011) The toxicity of heavy metals has adversely affected humans, animals and plants (Mazzei et al., 2014; Abtahi et al., 2017). The toxic effect of different heavy metals causes severe diseases as cancer, organ damage and blood disorders. In plants heavy metals injure to basic organs and little change in plant’s phenotype (Wang et al., 2018).  Under the study of soil chemistry interaction of water and insoluble compound of Al, Ca and soils dominated. Soil contamination is one of the major problems because its properties like toxicity, broad distribution, ability to transfer in plants, and persistence etc. (Fan et al., 2017). The soil hosts complex fauna and microbes which are involved in various biological processes, which also affect the physicochemical properties of soil. Formation of the soil affects the properties of soil as well as climate. Careless dumping of industrial wastes also affects our valuable resources (Khamparia et al., 2012 and Das et al., 2003).

                 Sponge iron is one of the industries which produces metallic product as a sponge iron by reduction of iron oxide that is used for steel manufacturing (Llorent et al., 2001). In India generally sponge iron plants are depends on coal and it is extreme in the India’s central eastern belt involving Odisha because of the easy availability of coal and iron in this belt.  These sponge iron industries contain a very high concentration of heavy metals like As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn etc. (Das et al., 2005). There are a lots of power station are sited and constantly affects to the environment. Therefore physical-chemical property and soil productivity is a very important issue to study of the soil. (Brandy et al., 2000). The effluents obtained from power plant i.e. fly ash contents, coal, inorganic complexes, organic compounds, non-biodegradable substances and heavy metals also vary the quality of soil (Foth, 1990).

                   India is the next major manufacturer of rice inside the world among yearly production of 100 MMT (Gurjar et al., 2015). The crop occupies 37% of the entire crop region and 44% manufacture of foods-tuff in India. The development in industrial and scientific advancement negatively influences the environment by contaminating and humiliating the soil properties. The significance and degree of productive functions of soil are suppressed by soil contamination through heavy metals. There are enormous numbers of mills occupied in processing of rice and is increase over in approximately all condition across the county due to increasing trends (Page, 1982). Rice milling is the procedure to remove husk and fiber from paddy to manufacture the rice for consumption. Rice production usually requires huge quantity of water for drenched of paddy. Effluents obtained from rice milling are loaded with organic and inorganic material which causes soil pollution. (Hurst et al., 1990). Aim of this study is to appraise the outcome found from waste of burnt and unburned rice milling on the basis of chemical properties of soil.

Material and methods

Study area

Present work was under taken out in surrounding area of a sponge iron plant and power plant which is situated about 20 km away from the state capital Raipur and is in 81.6232 ̊ E longitude and 21.1967 ̊ W in Chhattisgarh, India and one more sample is collected from surrounding area of rice mill which is located 10 km away from Bemetara district and is in 81.2849 ̊ E longitude and 21.1917 ̊ W latitude in Chhattisgarh, India. Usually black soil is found at that area. Local name of black soil is Kanhar Mati.

                                      

           Fig. 1. Map of Bemetara District                                                                   Fig. 2. Map of Raipur District

Sampling and preparation                  

The sampling of soil was carried out after the cutting of rice crop in the month of December 2018. Samples were collected from three sampling area. 50 to 4500 m distance were taken for sampling. It means at least 10 samples were collected from each sampling site. Plastic zip-lock bags were used to collect soil samples. The sample was slightly wet that’s why dried in oven. At laboratory, after removing plant residue and stones, crushed soil sample were collected in plastic bags for further analysis. 0.15 mm sieved was used to get similar size soil particle.

Instrumentation

Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (VARION AAS GF 240) in IGKV is used to determine the concentration of heavy metals. Atomic absorption is so sensitive that it can measure parts per billion of a gram (μgdm–3) in a sample. The technique makes use of the wavelengths of light specifically absorbed by an element. They correspond to the energies needed to promote electrons from lower to higher energy level. Atomic absorption spectrometry has many uses in different areas of chemistry. For ecological purposes, measuring labile soil is more interesting than constituents in determining total element content.

Solution preparation

1. Deionized water; 2. Di-ethylene tri-amine penta acetic acid (DTPA); 3. Triethanolamine (TEA); 4. Calcium chloride (CaCl2); 5. HCl (12 M); 6. AAS grade 1000 ppm Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn standards dissolved in HCl.

Extracting solution Di-ethylene tri-amine penta acetic acid (DTPA) (0.005 M)

1.967 gm DTPA and 13.3 ml Tri ethanol amine (TEA) and 1.47 gm calcium chloride dissolved in 500 ml deionized water and marked the volume 1000 ml adjust the pH 7.3 using HCl.

Stock standard solution- 1 gm of foil or wire (AR GRADE SIGMA) dissolved in dilute HCl and marked the volume 1 litter with deionized water. This become 1000 ppm solution of DTPA, 5 ml of stock solution was taken in a 100 ml volumetric flask and diluted to 100 ml for working 50 ppm solution and made different concentration ranges for different elements.

Soil Analysis- 12.5 gm soil sample was taken in a flask containing 100 ml of iodine solution and added 25ml of DTPA solution than shake the mixture for 2 hours on shaker at 80-90 rpm and was filtered through acid washed Whatmann’s no. 1 and the filtrate was collected in plastic bottles. The concentration of micronutrient was determined on atomic absorption spectrophotometer (VARION AAS GF 240) in IGKV Raipur.

Results

Cu is an important element for reproductive growth. Fe is essential for formation of chlorophyll. Carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism breakdown is done by Mn. Zn is very useful for carbohydrate transformation and sugar consumption and also regulates plant growth. The concentration of heavy metals around rice mill is given below:

Table 1. The concentration of heavy metals around rice mill

  Distance in m

    Fe mg/kg

     Cu mg/kg

    Mn mg/kg

     Zn mg/kg

 pH

        50

        16.41

         1.79

       16.43

        0.64

  7.40

        500

        16.43

         1.65

       15.00

        0.59

  7.29

        1000

        15.83

         1.68

       16.41

        0.57

  7.25

        1500

        15.92

         1.71

       16.42

        0.51

  7.22

        2000

        16.62

         1.73

       14.88

       0.54

  7.18

        2500

        16.33

         1.67

       15.47

       0.63

  7.10

        3000

        15.59

         1.77

       14.85

       0.52

  6.79

        3500

        16.39

         1.81

       16.72

       0.53

  7.48

        4000

        15.78

         1.97

       14.31

       0.61

  6.21

        4500

        16.88

         1.94

       16.51

       0.65

  6.13

 

                                       Fig. 3. Graph shows the concentration of heavy metals around rice mill

 

The villages located near the sponge iron industries have their agricultural fields found unproductive with accumulation and emissions of dust on the soil surface. Fields situated near the sponge iron plant have been covered by black soot particles. The following data observed around sponge iron industry-

 

Table 2. Data observed around sponge iron industry

  Distance in m

     Fe mg/kg

    Cu mg/kg

    Mn mg/kg

    Zn mg/kg

   pH

          50

        19.36

         1.23

       26.44

        0.96

  6.72

          500

        19.32

         1.98

       25.38

        0.84

  6.69

          1000

        19.45

         1.68

       25.95

        0.81

  6.66

          1500

        18.91

         1.52

       26.49

        0.48

  6.25

          2000

        19.88

         1.99

       26.58

        0.68

  6.08

          2500

        18.57

         1.28

       26.17

        0.92

  5.87

          3000

        19.76

         1.59

       25.47

        0.34

  5.76

          3500

        19.58

         1.33

       25.81

        0.94

  5.61

          4000

        18.00

         1.12

       26.62

        0.41

  5.48

          4500

        19.23

         1.65

       25.51

        0.49

  5.32

 

Fig. 4. Graph shows the concentration of heavy metals around sponge iron industry

Discussion

Thermal power plants pollute the surrounding soil with contaminated elements like Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn through its effluents. Therefore fertility of soil is completely destroyed.  The fundamental soil organisms are also destroyed due to these contaminations which affect our natural ecology. The following data obtained around power plant industries:

 

 

Table 3. Data obtained around power plant industries

  Distance in m

      Fe mg/kg

      Cu mg/kg

      Mn mg/kg

     Zn mg/kg

   pH

            50

         11.35

           2.36

         29.41

          0.85

   6.47

           500

         10.57

           1.91

         28.32

          0.89

   6.38

          1000

         10.76

           2.86

         28.92

          0.76

   6.21

          1500

         11.39

           2.64

         29.11

          0.87

   6.13

          2000

         11.78

           2.23

         29.37

          0.83

   6.02

          2500

         11.42

           1.95

         28.69

          0.72

   5.87

          3000

         10.69

           2.99

         29.00

          0.71

   5.72

          3500

         10.36

           1.30

         28.54

          0.88

   5.58

          4000

         10.25

           1.98

         29.24

          0.82

   5.42

          4500

         11.39

           2.58

         29.39

          0.84

   5.11

 

     

                                  Fig. 5. Graph shows the concentration of heavy metals around power plant industry

Result obtained from analysis of soil samples collected in the month of December 2018. The data shows that there was no significant variation in the available heavy metal content at various distances from 50 to 4500 m in the soil around the various industries. Fe content around rice mill was varied from 16.41 to 16.88 mg/kg, Cu content from 1.79 to 1.94 mg/kg, Mn content 16.43 to 16.51 mg/kg, Zn content from 0.64 to 0.65 mg/kg but these variations in different heavy metal content in soil were statistically non significant and irregular at various distance fields. The Fe concentration around sponge iron industry was varied from 19.36 to 19.23 mg/kg, Cu content from 1.23 to 1.65 mg/kg, Mn concentration from 26.44 to 25.51 mg/kg, Zn content from 0.96 to 0.49 mg/kg. The Fe content around power plant industry was 11.35 to 11.39 mg/kg, Cu concentration was 2.36 to 2.58 mg/kg, 29.41 to 29.39 mg/kg and Zn content was 0.85 to 0.84 mg/kg.     

Relation between pH and heavy metal of soil

In soils solubility and available heavy metal cation decreases with increasing pH because of absorption-precipitation reactions. The basic reason of acidity of soil is acid rain, decomposition of organic matter, nitrification of ammonium nitrogen, through leaching and crop uptake removal of basic elements. Availability and solubility of heavy metal cations are taken soluble under acidic conditions. Around rice mill, sponge iron and power plant the pH value is high at higher concentration of heavy metal. More than pH 6.7, the absorption of Fe and Cu increases steadily but in case of absorption Zn decreases with increasing pH like slightly below pH 6.5. Mobility of Copper decreases by sorption to the surfaces of mineral. Over a wide range of pH value sorption of Cu2+ become strongly to the surface of mineral. At neutral and acidic condition Zn is present as a soluble compounds and it is most mobile heavy metals in surface and ground waters also.                                                                                                                                                                                                                

Conclusion

Results show variations in different heavy metal contents in the soil. Dust obtained from different industries is an environmental hazard as it affects soil properties, animals and plants within the surrounding area of its deposition. The soil pH may be changed by the deposition of industrial dust over a long period of time. The presence of heavy metals in the atmosphere may cause a serious health problem to the communities located around the factory. We must to aware by planting a plant which will be metal accumulating plant around the industries to remove contamination of metals from the field (Wufem et al., 2014)                                                  

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the authorities of Government Nagarjuna Post Graduate College of Science, Raipur (India) and Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalay Raipur (India) for providing necessary laboratory facilities for the kind cooperation during collection and analytical work of this project.

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