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Author(s): Pooja Deshpande, Suman Shrivastava, S.J. Daharwal*

Email(s): poojadeshpande0904@gmail.com

Address: University Institute of Pharmacy, Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur-492010, Chattisgarh, India. *Corresponding Author: sjdaharwal@gmail.com

Published In:   Volume - 31,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2018


Cite this article:
Deshpande et al. (2018). A Review on Plant Profile, Standardization Method and Pharmacological Activities of Tribulus Terristries (Gokhru). Journal of Ravishankar University (Part-B: Science), 31 (1), pp. 40-45.



 


A Review on Plant Profile, Standardization Method and Pharmacological Activities of Tribulus Terristries (Gokhru)

Pooja Deshpande, Suman Shrivastava, S.J. Daharwal*                                

University Institute of Pharmacy, Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur-492010, Chattisgarh, India.

*Corresponding Author:  sjdaharwal@gmail.com

[Received: 24 February 2018; Revised version: 04 April 2018; Accepted: 14 April 2018]

Abstract. Tribulus terristries belongs to family zygophyllaceae and commonly known as Puncture vine, Tribulus including goat's-head, bindii, bullhead, burra gokharu, bhakhdi, caltrop, small caltrops, cat's-head, devil's eyelashes, devil's-thorn, devil's-weed, puncture vine, and tackweed. Found widely distributed warmer regions of the world, throughout in India, srilanka, west Tibet, consists of dried fully ripen fruits of plant. Fruits are used as Diuretics tonics and also in the treatment of calculous affections and painful micturation, they are also used as aphrodiasic and in gout. Standardization is a system ensuring predefined set of the quantity, quality and therapeutic effect of the constituents in each dose. It is an imperative stride in establishing a quality assurance plan for production and manufacturing thereby, curtailing batch to batch variation and reassuring acceptability, safety, quality and efficacy of the drug , Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiles are used for ensuring the identity, transparency and potency of herbal formulations.

Key words: Diuretics, Standardization, Fingerprint, Chromatography, Micturation.

Introduction

Gokhru consists of dried fully ripen fruits of plant Tribulus terristries (TT) Linn (Fig 1), belongs to the Family zygophyllaceae, commonly known as puncture vine, tribulus, TT is very valued for the broad range of properties such as asthma, cough, splenetic diseases, heart disorders, aching of limbs, striating urinary stones, aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, anthelmintic, diuretic and used in enemas, comes under the category of saponin glycosides (Kokate et al., 2003).

     

Figure 1. (a): TT leaves and flowers                                       (b): Dried TT fruit

Scientific classification

Kingdom:

Plantae

Clade:

Angiosperms

Clade:

Eudicots

Clade:

Rosids

Order:

Zygophyllales

Family:

Zygophyllaceae

Genus:

Tribulus

Species:

T. terrestris

Geographical distribution

Found widely distributed warmer regions of the world, throughout in India, srilanka, west Tibet Flowering mainly takes place in Rainy season; the month of collection is between October and November (Kokate et al., 2003).

 

 

Range and habitat

Native to the Mediterranean region, TT is widespread throughout the world from latitudes 35°S to 47°N. It is distributed across warm temperate and tropical regions of southern Europe, southern Asia, throughout Africa, New Zealand, and Australia (Kokate et al., 2003).

Macroscopic characters of gokhru

Colour – Fresh and greenish to gray

Odour – Odourless

Size – 1.0 -1.5 cm

Shape – Fruits are globose, consist of 5- 10 woody cocci, each with two pairs of hard and sharp divergent spines (Kokate et al., 2003)

Microscopy of powdered gokhru

Gokhru fruit develops from Penta carpellery syncarpous ovary giving rise to five fused cocci, each coccus has two long sharp, strong spines on outer part and two short, thick spines on the inner part, the diameter of the fruit 9μm, the radial length of the coccus 3 μm, thickness of the coccus along tangential plain 750μm (Fig 2) (Yanala and Sathyanarayana, 2017).

 

Figure 2. Microscopy of gokhru

The microscopy of gokhru shows the following elements:

Schelerids: These are the major components of the powder; these are of two types

§  Fibre sclerides: They are long narrow fibre like in shape and size their ends are tapering (fig 3).

 

Figure 3. Microscopy of gokhru (Fibre sclerides)

§  Brachy sclerides: Short, wide angular sclerides, they are wide, thick walled lobed cells, numerous circular, simple cuts are seen in the walls (Fig.4 ) (Yanala and  Sathyanarayana, 2017).

 

Figure 4. Microscopy of gokhru (Brachy sclerides)

Parenchyma cells: Large mass is seen, the cells are thin walled, circular and possess dense cytoplasm, average diameter is 8μm (Fig.5) (Yanala and Sathyanarayana, 2017).

Figure 5. Microscopy of gokhru (Parenchyma Cells)

Trichomes: They are abundant on fruit , they are sheltered in the powder and are of different sizes , some are short and others are quite long short trichomes are less than 200μm , the longer trichomes are 450 μm (Fig.1.5 D) There are also thick undulate trichomes simulating worms These vermiform trichomes have wide cell lumen. The trichomes are 10 µm thick; their walls strongly lignified (Fig.6). (Yanala and Sathyanarayana, 2017).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 6. Microscopy of gokhru (Thick undulate trichomes and vermiform trichomes)

§  Crystals: Calcium oxalate crystals are abundant in the powder; they are prismatic type, cuboidal, rhomboidal or polyhedral type (Fig.7) (Yanala and Sathyanarayana, 2017).

 

Figure 7. Microscopy of gokhru (Calcium oxalate crystals)

Chemical constituents

The drug contains traces of alkaloids, Harmine and Harman. Additionally, they contain saponins, which on hydrolysis yield steroidal sapogenins like Diosgenin, Gitogenin, Chlorogenin and Ruscogenin. The roots and leaves also contain saponin, Flavonoids, Kaemferol, tribuloside and its derivatives, also consist of fixed oil (3.5%),traces of essential oils , nitrates and other constituents of fruits, the oil consist of excellent drying property (Kokate et al., 2003).

Standardization method

Quantitative test (Determine by thin-layer chromatography, Coating the plate with silica gel GF254)

Mobile phase: A mixture of 8 volumes of toluene and 2 volumes of ethyl acetate.

Test solution: Reflux 5 g of coarsely powdered substance under examination with 50 ml of methanol for 15 minutes, cool and filter. Reflux the residue further with 50 ml of methanol, cool and filter. Combine both the filtrates and concentrate under vacuum to dryness. Extract the dried residue with 10 ml of methanol at 50° for 10 minutes, filter the solution and use filtrates for analysis. (Indian Pharmacopoeia, vol., 2014)

Reference solution: Reflux 2.5 g of gokhru RS with 50 ml of methanol for 15 minutes, cool and filters. Reflux the residue further with 50 ml of methanol, cool and filter. Combine both the filtrates and concentrate under vacuum to dryness. Extract filter the solution and use the filtrates for analysis. Apply to the plate 20 pl of each solution as bands 10 mm by 2 mm. Allow the mobile phase to rise 8 cm. Dry the plate in air and examine under ultraviolet light at 254 nm and 365 nm, spray with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent. Heat the plate at 105° for 5 minutes and examine in day light. The chromatographic profile of the test solution is similar to that of the reference solution (Indian Pharmacopoeia, vol. 2014).

Qualitative test

Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoid, phenols and saponins (Singh et al., 2013), were reported to be present in TT. The TT extracts (fruit, bark, roots and leaves) contain a resin, fat and mineral matter and showed potential therapeutic properties. The inorganic constituents found in TT are chloride, calcium, sulphate, potassium, magnesium and total alkalinity. The fruits contain (0.001%) of alkaloid, essential oil, resin and nitrates (Vyawahare et al., 2014). Phytoconstituents are just like immunological weapons for medicinal plants that are potentially used to overcome various biotic and abiotic stress conditions (Patil and Ladea, 2016).

Pharmacological activities of gokhru

Fruits are used as Diuretics tonics and also in the treatment of calculous affections and painful micturation, they are also used as aphrodiasic and in gout, used in blood pressure, heart diseases, abdominal dysfunctions, edema, eye problems. TT is very valued for the broad range of properties such as asthma, cough, splenetic diseases, heart disorders, aching of limbs, striating urinary stones, aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, anthelmintic, diuretic and used in enemas. The leaves are used in pharmaceutical industry for preparation of herbal tonic, it plays important role in, digestive problems, to increase spermatozoa and treat urinary tract infection (Patil and Ladea, 2016).

Diuretic activity

The diuretic properties of TT are due to large quantities of nitrates and essential oil present in its fruits and seeds. The diuretic activity can also be attributed to the presence of potassium salts in high concentration. Ali et al. tested the aqueous extract of TT prepared from its fruit and leaves in rat diuretic model and strips of isolated Guinea pig ileum were used for the contractility test. The aqueous extract of TT, in oral dose of 5 g/kg, elicited a positive diuresis, which was slightly more than that of furosemide. Sodium and chloride concentrations in the urine were increased. The increased tonicity of the smooth muscles, which was produced by TT extract, together with its diuretic activity helped in the propulsion of stones along the urinary tract (Al-Ali et al., 2003).

Aphrodisiac activity

Adaikan et al. reported that the TT extract exhibited a pro-erectile effect on rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle ex vivo after oral treatment at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. A significant relaxation of 24% was observed with nitroglycerine in the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle tissue. Similarly, 10% relaxation was observed with both acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation, respectively, following the above treatment with TT in rabbits. The enhanced relaxant effect observed is due to increase in the release of nitric oxide from the endothelium and nitrergic nerve endings, which may account for its claims as an aphrodisiac (Adaikan et al., 2003).

Antiurolithic activity

An ethanolic extract of TT fruits was tested in urolithiasis induced by glass bead implantation in albino rats by anand et al. It exhibited significant dose-dependent protection against deposition of calculogenic material around the glass bead, leukocytosis, and elevation in serum urea levels. Subsequent fractionation of the ethanol extract led to decrease in activity (Anand et al., 1994).

Antidiabetic activity

Saponin from TT possesses hypoglycemic properties. TT significantly reduced the level of serum glucose, serum triglyceride, and serum cholesterol, while serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The decoction of TT showed inhibition of gluconeogenesis in mice (Li M et al., 2002).

Analgesic activity

Analgesic activities of TT were studied in male mice using formalin and tail flick test. The study indicated that the methanolic extract of TT at a dose of 100 mg/kg produced analgesic effect. This analgesic effect of the TT extract may be mediated centrally and/or peripherally. Effect of the extract was lower than morphine and higher than acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in both tests. Pretreatment of animals with opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, did not change the analgesic effect of the extract in both tests. therefore, the involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic effect of TT is excluded. However, the other mechanisms responsible for the analgesic effect of TT remain to be investigated. The results of ulcerogenic studies indicate that the gastric ulcerogenecity of TT is lower than indomethacin in the rat's stomach (Heidari et al., 2007).

Anticancer activity

Chemopreventive potential of the aqueous extract of the root and fruit of TT at 800 mg/kg on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and croton oil induced papillomagenesis in Swiss albino male mice depicted significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, and cumulative number of papillomas, along with a significant increase in the average latent period in mice treated orally with TT suspension continuously at pre, peri, and post-initiation stages of papillomagenesis, as compared to the control group treated with DMBA and croton oil alone. The root extract of TT exhibited better chemopreventive potential than the fruit extract at the same concentration (800 mg/kg body weight) in skin papillomagenesis in mice (Kumar et al., 2006).

Activity in cardiac disorders

TT showed significant effect in the treatment of various cardiac diseases including coronary disease, myocardial infarction, cerebral arteriosclerosis, and the sequelae of cerebral thrombosis. Evaluated the protective effect of tribulosin from TT against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury to study the underlying mechanism in rats. Tribulosin protected myocardium against ischemia / reperfusion injury through protein kinase C epsilon activation (Zhang et al., 2010).

Marketed formulations

There are varieties of formulations available in the market like Herbal hills gokshuru powder, ayurvedic life gokshuru capsule, sri nature ayur gokhru powder, himalaya gokshuru Capsules, dark forest gokhar powder.

Conclusion

Numerous studies have been conducted on different parts of TT. This plant has developed as a drug by pharmaceutical industries. A detailed and systematic study is required for identification, cataloguing and documentation of plants, which may provide a meaningful way for promoting traditional knowledge of the medicinal herbal plant.

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to the University institute of Pharmact, Ptrsu (Raipur), for the support.

References

Adaikan P. G., Gauthaman, K., Prasad, R. N. (2000). Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum. ANNALS Academy of Medicine, 29:22–6.

Al-Ali, M., Wahbi, S., Twaij, H., Al-Badr, A. (2003). Tribulus terrestris: Preliminary study of its diuretic and contractile effects and comparison with Zea mays. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1(85):257–60.

Anand, R., Patnaik, G. K., Kulshreshtha, D. K., Dhawan, B. N. (1994) Activity of certain fractions of Tribulus terrestris fruits against experimentally induced urolithiasis in rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 32:548–52.

Choudhary, N., & Sekhon, B. S. (2011). An overview of advances in the standardization of herbal drugs. Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2(2):55.

Heidari, M. R., Mehrabani, M., Pardakhty, A., Khazaeli, P., Zahedi, M. J., Yakhchali, M. (2007). The analgesic effect of Tribulus terrestris extract and comparison of gastric ulcerogenicity of the extract with indomethacine in animal experiments. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1095:418–27.

Kokate, C. K., Purohit, A. P., Gokhale, S. B. (2003). Text book of Pharmacognosy. Pune: Nirali Prakashan. 8:66.

Kumar, M., Soni, A. K., Shukla, S., Kumar, A. (2006). Chemopreventive potential of Tribulus terrestris against 7, 12- dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis in mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 7:289–94.

Li, M., Qu, W., Chu, S., Wang, H., Tian, C., Tu, M. (2001). Effect of the decoction of Tribulus terrestris on mice gluconeogenesis. Zhong Yao Cai. 24:586–8.

Li, M., Qu, W., Wang, Y., Wan, H., Tian, C. (2002) Hypoglycemic effect of saponin from Tribulus terrestris. Zhong Yao Cai. 25:420–2.

Nikam, P. H., Kareparamban, J., Jadhav, A., & Kadam, V. (2012). Future trends in standardization of herbal drugs. Journal of applied pharmaceutical science, 2(6), 38-44.

Patil, A., Ladea, B. D., Pharmacological Aspects of Tribulus terrestris Linn.(Goksura): Progress and Prospects. Therapeutic Medicinal Plants. 2016:375.

Pharmacopoeia, I. (2014). Indian Pharmacopoeia, vol. 3. Worldwide Book Service.

Yanala, S. R., Sathyanarayana, D. (2017). Powder microscopic studies of the fruits of tribulus terrestris linn collected from different geographical locations of South India–a comparative study. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 9:158-64.

Zhang, S., Li, H., Yang, S. J. (2010). Tribulosin protects rat hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Acta pharmacologica Sinica. 31:671–8.             

 

                    



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